Chapter_27_The_Bacteria_and_Archaea

Chapter_27_The_Bacte - CHAPTER 27 THE BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA 1 One of the most prominent features of the bacteria and archaea is their diversity Only

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1 CHAPTER 27 THE BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA
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2 One of the most prominent features of the bacteria and archaea is their diversity Only 1% of newly discovered species have been cultured in the lab Most species are known only as distinctive molecular sequences
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3 Fig. 27.1
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4 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, using a single-lens microscope of his own design. He called them "animalcules“ Father of Microbiology
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5 Prokaryotes Lack nuclei and other cellular features typical of eukaryotes Domain Archaea Domain Bacteria (or Eubacteria)
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6 Domain Archaea Possess a number of features in common with the eukaryotic nucleus and cytoplasm, suggesting common ancestry Histone proteins Membrane lipids different from those in eukaryotes or bacteria More resistant and other extreme conditions Ether-linked membranes (opposed to ester- linked)
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7 Extremophiles Can occupy habitats with very high salt content, acidity, methane levels, or high temperatures Methanopyrus grows in deep-sea thermal vents at 98°C (hyperthermophiles) Sulfolobus grows in hot springs at pH of 3 Halophiles "salt loving"
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8 Fig. 27.2
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9 Domain Archaea Kingdom Crenarchaeota Sulfolobus and others that grow in extreme hot or cold Kingdom Euryachaeota Methane producers and extreme halophiles Kingdom Korarchaeota Hot springs Kingdom Nanoarchaeota Hyperthermophiles: requires very hot environment
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10 Domain Bacteria 50 or so bacterial phyla Structural and metabolic features of half unknown Some live in extreme environments, but many more bacteria favor moderate conditions
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11 Table. 27.1
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12 Proteobacteria Amazing diversity of form and metabolism 5 major subgroups α-proteobacteria Ancestors of mitochondria, Rhizobium (nutritionally beneficial associations with roots of legumes) , Agrobacterium β-proteobacteria Nitrosomonas (important with the Nitrogen cycle) , Neisseria (sexually transmitted disease gonorrheae) γ-proteobacteria Vibrio(Cholera), Salmonella, Escerichia coli δ -proteobacteria Myxobacteria, bdellovibrios
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13 δ-proteobacteria Myxobacteria, bdellovibrios ε –proteobacteria Helicobacter (stomach ulcers)
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14 Fig. 27.3
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15 Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic bacteria abundant in fresh waters, oceans and wetlands and on surfaces of arid soils Named for blue-green or cyan color Gave rise to plastids of eukaryotic algae and plants
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Patton during the Spring '12 term at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Chapter_27_The_Bacte - CHAPTER 27 THE BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA 1 One of the most prominent features of the bacteria and archaea is their diversity Only

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