Chapter_30_plants - CHAPTER 30 PLANTS AND THE CONQUEST OF...

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1 CHAPTER 30 PLANTS AND THE CONQUEST OF LAND
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2 Eukaryotic, primarily photosynthetic organisms that mostly live on land and display many adaptations to life in terrestrial habitats Most likely evolved from aquatic algal ancestors
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3 Ancestry Monophyletic kingdom Probably originated from a single common protist ancestor Either Chara or Coleochaete are modern protists most closely related to ancestry of land plants
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4 10 plant phyla Liverworts Mosses Hornworts Lycophytes Lycophytes Pteridophytes Cycads Ginkgos Conifers Gnetophytes Angiosperms
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5 Bryophytes Include liverworts, hornworts, and mosses Monophyletic phyla Share common structural, reproductive and ecological features Models of earliest plants
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6 Bryophytes display features absent from charophycean algae but present in plants Likely early adaptations to land Charophycean display a zygotic life cycle with a one cell diploid zygote Bryophytes and other plants exhibit a sporic life cycle with alternation of generations
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7 Adaptations to life on land Sporic life cycle has 2 multicellular life stages Diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis Spores grow into gametophytes Haploid gametophyte produces gametes by mitosis Gametes are nonflagellate eggs and smaller flagellate sperm fuse into single-celled diploid zygotes
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8 Gametophytes Produces haploid gametes Gametangia protects developing gametes from drying out and microbial attack Antheridia – round or elongate gametangia producing sperm Archegonia – flask shaped gametangia enclosing an egg Sperm swim to egg and fuse to form diploid zygote Zygotes grow into sporophytes
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9 Sporophytes Zygotes remain sheltered and fed within gametophyte tissue Young sporophytes are embryos When mature, spores are produced in protective enclosures known as sporangia Plant spore cell walls contain sporopollenin to help prevent cellular damage During evolution, plant sporophytes become larger and more complex
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10 Distinguishing bryophyte features Gametophytes dominant generation (as opposed to dominant sporophyte generation in other plants) Sporophytes are dependent on gametophtye and small and short lived (as opposed to independent, large and long- lived in other plants) Nonvascular or lacking tissues for structural support and conduction found in other plants (vascular plants)
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11 Lycophytes and pteridophytes Lycophytes : more numerous and larger in the past but now about 1000 relatively small species Fig 30.9
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12 Pteridophytes – about 12,000 species of ferns, horsetails and whisk ferns
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Patton during the Spring '12 term at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Chapter_30_plants - CHAPTER 30 PLANTS AND THE CONQUEST OF...

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