13. - Matching Questions Figure 13.1 Using Figure 13.1,...

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Unformatted text preview: Matching Questions Figure 13.1 Using Figure 13.1, match the following: 1) Innervates the superior oblique muscle. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 501; Fig. 13.5 2) Longest cranial nerve. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 500; Fig. 13.5 3) Damage to this nerve would cause dizziness, nausea, and loss of balance. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 500; Fig. 13.5 4) Involved in the regulation of breathing. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 500; Fig. 13.5 5) Damage to this nerve would cause difficulty in speech. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 500; Fig. 13.5 6) Damage to this nerve would keep the eye from rotating counterclockwise interolaterally. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 500; Fig. 13.5 Figure 13.2 Using Figure 13.2, identify the following components of the reflex arc: 7) Integration center. Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 521; Fig. 13.14 8) Sensory neuron. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 521; Fig. 13.14 9) Effector. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 521; Fig. 13.14 10) Motor neuron. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 521; Fig. 13.14 11) Receptor. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 521; Fig. 13.14 Match the following: 12) Formed by the union of cranial and a spinal root. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 508 13) Receptors located in epithelium of the nasal cavity. Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 502 14) Serves the senses of hearing and equilibrium. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 506 15) Helps to regulate blood pressure and digestion. Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 507 16) Turns the eyeball laterally. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 505 A) Abducens B) Vagus C) Vestibulocochlear D) Accessory E) Olfactory Match the following reflexes to their function: 17) Tests both upper and lower motor pathways. The sole of the foot is stimulated with a dull instrument extension. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 527 18) Checks the integrity of the spinal cord and dorsal rami at the level of T8 to T 12. Answer: C A) Plantar B) Flexor C) Abdominal D) Stretch Diff: 2 Page Ref: 527 19) Produces a rapid withdrawl of the body part from a painful stimulus; ipsilateral. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 525‐526 20) Prevents muscle overstretching and maintains muscle tone. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 523; Fig. 13.16 Match the following: 21) The obturator and femoral nerves branch from this plexus. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 514; Fig. 13.10 22) Striking the funny bone may cause injury to a nerve of this plexus. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 512; Fig. 13.9 23) Trauma to a nerve of this plexus may cause wrist drop. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 512; Fig. 13.9 24) Improper administration of an injection to the buttocks may injure a nerve of this plexus. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 516; Fig. 13.11 25) The phrenic nerve branches from this plexus. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 511; Fig. 13.8 A) Lumbar plexus B) Brachial plexus C) Sacral plexus D) Cervical plexus Match the following: 26) Regulates motor activity. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 520; Fig. 13.13 27) Central pattern generators. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 519; Fig. 13.13 28) Intermediate relay for incoming and outgoing neurons. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 520; Fig. 13.13 29) The cerebellum and basal nuclei. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 520; Fig. 13.13 30) Includes cortical and brain stem motor areas. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 520; Fig. 13.13 31) The neural machinery of the spinal cord. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 519; Fig. 13.13 A) Projection level B) Precommand level C) Segmental level True/False Questions 1) The meningeal branch of a spinal nerve actually reenters the vertebral canal to innervate the meninges and blood vessels. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 508; Fig. 13.6 2) In the somatosensory system there are no third-order neurons in the cerebellum. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 495; Fig.13.2 3) There are 41 pairs of spinal nerves. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 508; Fig.13.6 4) The glossopharyngeal nerve is the only cranial nerve that contains sensory fibers. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 500; Fig.13.5 5) The musculocutaneous nerve is a major nerve of the brachial plexus. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 512 6) The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 501 7) The only cranial nerves to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 507 8) The dorsal ramus consists only of motor fibers bringing information to the spinal cord. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 509 9) Dermatomes are skin segments that relate to sensory innervation regions of the spinal nerves. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 516-518 10) Spinal roots and rami are similar in that they both contain sensory and motor fibers. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 509 11) Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 512 12) The obturator nerve branches from the sacral plexus. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 514-515 13) Reciprocal inhibition means that while one sensory nerve is stimulated, another sensory neuron in the same area is inhibited and cannot respond. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 524 14) External strabismus and ptosis could be caused by damage to the oculomotor nerve. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 503 15) In order to regulate motor activity, to start and stop movements, and to coordinate postural movements, the cerebellum and basal nuclei are involved. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 520-521 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The ʺknee jerkʺ reflex is an example of a(n) ________. A) xtensor thrust reflex e B) tress reflex s C) ross extensor reflex c D) tretch reflex s Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 523 2) The ________ nerve is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve. A) phthalmic o B) axillary m C) ervical c D) andibular m Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 504 3) Which of the following nerves does not arise from the brachial plexus? A) edian m B) hrenic p C) adial r D) lnar u Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 512 4) Which of the following is at the lowest level of the CNS? A) irect system d B) ndirect system i C) rojection level p D) PG C Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 520 5) The three primary levels of neural integration in a sensory system include all of the following except the ________. A) eceptor level r B) ircuit level c C) erceptual level p D) ffector level e Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 494 6) The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the ________ nerve. A) bturator o B) ommon fibular c C) ibial t D) emoral f Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 516 7) Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are, in order ________. A) ami, trunks, divisions, and cords r B) ami, divisions, cords, and trunks r C) ivisions, rami, trunks, and cords d D) runks, divisions, cords, and rami t Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 512-513 8) The cranial nerve with a dual origin (brain and spinal cord) is the ________. A) ypoglossal h B) ccessory a C) agus v D) lossopharyngeal g Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 508 9) Which of the following is not a nerve plexus? A) rachial b B) ervical c C) umbar l D) horacic t Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 510-511 10) A major nerve of the lumbar plexus is the ________. A) emoral f B) liohypogastric i C) ciatic s D) lioinguinal i Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 514 11) Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the ________. A) umbar plexus l B) emoral plexus f C) acral plexus s D) horacic plexus t Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 516 12) The abducens nerve ________. A) upplies innervation to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye s B) elays sensory information from taste buds on the tongue r C) xits from the medulla e D) f paralyzed, exhibits Bellʹs palsy i Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 505 13) Basic reflexes ________. A) re rapid, predictable, learned responses a B) ay be modified by learned behavior m C) re autonomic only a D) re always mediated by the brain a Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 521 14) Which of the following is not true about the integration center of a reflex arc? A) he center may be a single synapse between a motor and a sensory neuron. T B) here are always multiple synapses with chains of interneurons. T C) t is always located in the CNS. I D) he center is a simple reflex arc. T Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 521-522 15) Striking the ʺfunny boneʺ is actually stimulation of the ________. A) adial nerve r B) ciatic nerve s C) lnar nerve u D) edian nerve m Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 512-513 16) Which of the following numbers of pairs of spinal nerves is correct? A) ix cervical s B) welve thoracic t C) ix lumbar s D) ight sacral e Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 508-509 17) Select the statement about plexuses that is most correct ________. A) he dorsal rami of all spinal nerves unite to form complex networks T B) nly ventral rami form plexuses O C) ach branch of the plexus contains fibers from a single spinal nerve E D) he ventral rami of thoracic spinal nerves unite to form the thoracic plexus T Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 510 18) A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle contraction is called a ________. A) olgi tendon reflex G B) lexor reflex f C) rossed extensor reflex c D) lantar reflex p Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 525 19) Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors are ________. A) nteroceptors i B) xteroceptors e C) roprioceptors p D) hemoreceptors c Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 491 20) Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________. A) nteroceptors i B) hotoreceptors p C) ociceptors n D) roprioceptors p Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 491 21) Meissnerʹs corpuscles ________. A) re found primarily in connective tissue a B) re anatomically unencapsulated a C) re interoceptors a D) re mechanoreceptors a Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 492 22) Which receptors adapt most slowly? A) mell receptors s B) ressure receptors p C) ociceptors n D) ouch receptors t Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 492-493 23) The abducens nerve conveys proprioceptor impulses from the ________ to the brain. A) edial rectus muscle m B) ateral rectus muscle l C) uperior rectus muscle s D) nferior rectus muscle i Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 505 24) Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________. A) fferent nerves a B) fferent nerves e C) otor nerves m D) ixed nerves m Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 499 25) After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________. A) allerian cells W B) chwann cells S C) endrites d D) olgi organs G Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 499-500 26) Regeneration within the CNS ________. A) s more successful than with the PNS i B) ypically allows axonal sprouting of 20 mm t C) s complicated by secondary demyelination i D) s promoted by growth inhibitors and glial scars i Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 499-500 27) In a crossed extensor reflex, if the right arm were grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________. A) lso flex a B) xtend e C) bduct a D) dduct a Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 525-526 28) Select the correct definition. A) agnitude estimation is the simplest level of sensation. M B) erceptual detection is the ability to detect how much stimulus is applied to the body. P C) attern recognition allows us to see a familiar face. P D) patial discrimination allows us to recognize textures. S Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 498 29) All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ________. A) ons p B) halamus t C) eticular formation r D) edulla m Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 495-496 30) The sciatic nerve is a combination of which two nerves? A) udendal and posterior femoral cutaneous p B) osterior femoral cutaneous and tibial p C) udendal and common fibular p D) ommon fibular and tibial c Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 516 31) The largest and longest nerve of the body is found in the ________. A) ervical plexus c B) rachial plexus b C) umbar plexus l D) acral plexus s Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 516 32) Irritation of a major nerve of this plexus may cause hiccups. A) ervical plexus c B) umbar plexus l C) acral plexus s D) horacic plexus t Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 511-512 33) Bellʹs palsy ________. A) s characterized by partial paralysis of diaphragm muscles i B) s characterized byloss of vision i C) s often caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve i D) s characterized by paralysis of facial muscles i Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 505 34) Babinskiʹs sign is ________. A) ormal in an infant less than 4 years old n B) reflex whose physiological mechanism is well understood a C) hen the great toe dorsiflexes and the other toes fan laterally w D) aused by incomplete development of the thalamus in the infant c Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 527 35) A simple spinal reflex goes along which of the following reflex arcs? A) ffector, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, receptor e B) eceptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector r C) ffector, efferent neuron, integration center, afferent neuron, receptor e D) eceptor, efferent neuron, integration center, afferent neuron, effector r Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 521-522 36) Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following? A) culomotor o B) estibulocochlear v C) rigeminal t D) acial f Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 500-501 37) Transduction refers to conversion of ________. A) resynaptic nerve impulses to postsynaptic nerve impulses p B) timulus information to nerve impulses s C) eceptor energy to stimulus energy r D) fferent impulses to efferent impulses a Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 494 38) ________ always takes a nonspecific ascending pathway. A) ouch T B) ain P C) emperature T D) rousal A Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 497-498 39) The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve? A) adial r B) edian m C) lnar u D) usculocutaneous m Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 512 40) The cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all except the ________. A) rigeminal t B) acial f C) lossopharyngeal g D) rochlear t Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 503 41) Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve? A) bducens a B) estibulocochlear v C) rigeminal t D) ccessory a Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 506 42) A fracture of the ethmoid bone would result in damage to which cranial nerve? A) lossopharyngeal g B) agus v C) lfactory o D) ccessory a Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 502 43) Select the statement that is most correct. A) anglia are collections of neuron cell bodies in the CNS that are associated with efferent fibers. G B) fferent nerve fibers contain cell bodies of sensory neurons. A C) he dorsal root ganglion is a motor-only structure. T D) he cell bodies of afferent ganglia are located in the spinal cord. T Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 499 44) An improperly delivered gluteal injection could result in ________. A) eurofibromatosis n B) ostpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy p C) aresthesia p D) ciatica s Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 516 45) Which nerve does not use the jugular foramen as a route of exit from the skull? A) rigeminal t B) ccessory a C) agus v D) lossopharyngeal g Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 504 46) The peripheral nervous system includes ________. A) ensory receptors s B) asal nuclei b C) he spinal cord t D) he corpus callosum t Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 491 47) Feeling a gentle caress on your arm would likely involve all of the following except ________. A) eissnerʹs corpuscles M B) erkel discs M C) acinian corpuscles P D) oot hair plexuses r Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 492 48) A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, and the corner of his mouth droops. Which cranial nerve has been damaged? A) acial f B) lossopharyngeal g C) ypoglossal h D) ccessory a Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 505 49) The circuit level of the somatosensory system involves CNS centers in all of the following except the ________. A) pinal cord s B) halamus t C) rain stem b D) erebral cortex c Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 494-495 50) The projection level of the brain does not include the ________. A) asal nuclei b B) rain stem nuclei b C) eticular formation r D) erebellum c Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 520 51) If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies? A) omplete loss of sensation c B) complete loss of voluntary movement a C) oss of neither sensation nor movement but only of autonomic control l D) complete loss of sensation and movement a Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 509 Fill-in-the-Blank/Short Answer Questions 1) ________ law states that any nerve serving a muscle that produces movement at a joint also innervates the joint itself and the skin over the joint. Answer: Hiltonʹs Diff: 1 Page Ref: 516 2) ________ are modified free-nerve endings found in the stratum germinativum. Answer: Merkel discs Diff: 1 Page Ref: 492 3) The perineurium defines the boundary of a ________. Answer: fascicle Diff: 1 Page Ref: 498 4) The ________ nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. Answer: trigeminal Diff: 1 Page Ref: 504 5) Ventral spinal cord roots contain ________ fibers, while the dorsal roots contain ________ fibers. Answer: motor (efferent); sensory (afferent) Diff: 1 Page Ref: 509 6) The facial nerve is cranial nerve number ________. Answer: VII Diff: 1 Page Ref: 505 7) ________ is a protective reflex that overrides the spinal pathways and prevents any other reflexes from using them at the same time. Answer: Flexor (polysynaptic) reflex Diff: 2 Page Ref: 525-526 8) ________ is the tingling sensation or numbness when blood has been cut off from an area, as when the foot ʺgoes to sleep.ʺ Answer: Ischemia Diff: 1 Page Ref: 514 9) Pain perception is involved in the ________ ascending pathways of the somatosensory system. Answer: nonspecific Diff: 2 Page Ref: 497 10) Complex motor behavior such as walking depends on ________ patterns. Answer: fixed-action Diff: 1 Page Ref: 520-521 11) Mr. Smith staggered home after a long night at the local pub. While attempting to navigate the stairs, he passed out cold and lay all night with his right armpit straddling the staircase banister. When he awoke the next morning, he had a severe headache, but what bothered him more was that he had no sensation in his right arm and hand. Explain what caused this symptom in his arm. Answer: Continuous pressure interrupts blood flow along with oxygen and nutrients to the neuronal processes. As a result, impulse transmission is inhibited temporarily. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 514 12) Define Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles relative to the stretch reflex. Answer: Golgi tendon organs work with muscle spindles to act as proprioceptors in skeletal muscles and their associated tendons. When muscles are stretched due to contraction of antagonist muscles, the sensory neurons send impulses to the spinal cord, where they synapse with motor neurons of the stretched muscle. Impulses are then sent to the stretched muscle, which then resists further stretching. This prevents muscle tissue damage. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 525-526 13) Distinguish between monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes and between ipsilateral and contralateral reflex responses. Answer: Monosynaptic refers to a single synapse in the reflex arc (one sensory and one motor neuron). Polysynaptic refers to more than one synapse in the arc involving sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Ipsilateral refers to a reflex arc limited to one side of the spinal cord, while contralateral reflexes cross to the opposite side. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 521, 524 14) What is the normal response of the plantar reflex? What is Babinskiʹs sign and what does it indicate? Answer: plantar reflex tests the integrity of the spinal cord from L4 to S2 and also determines if The corticospinal tracts are functioning and properly myelinated. The normal plantar response is downward flexion of the toes. If there is damage, the great toe dorsiflexes and smaller toes fan laterally (Babinskiʹs sign). Infants, who normally lack complete myelination, exhibit this sign. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 527 15) List and describe the functions of the three cranial nerves that serve the muscles of the eye. Answer: three cranial nerves are: oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens. The oculomotor is mostly motor, The with branches to the inferior oblique and superior, inferior, and medial rectus muscles, as well as to the muscles of the iris and lens. The trochlear supplies mostly motor fibers to the superior oblique muscles of the eye. The abducens supplies mostly motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the eye. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 503, 505 16) Name an exteroceptor that is not a cutaneous receptor and explain why. Answer: Exteroceptors that are not cutaneous receptors include the chemoreceptors of the tongue and nasal mucosa, the photoreceptors of the eyes, and the mechanoreceptors of the inner ear. These all monitor changes in the external environment, so they are classified as exteroceptors. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 491-492 17) What is the benefit of having the nerve supply of the diaphragm, which is located in the thoracic-lumbar area of the spinal cord, arise from cervical nerves? Answer: fact that the phrenic nerve originates so high in the spinal cord reduces the likelihood of spinal The damage above the phrenic origin, thereby reducing the possibility that a spinal injury would stop the diaphragm from working. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 511-512 18) George, a 20-year-old man, injured his jaw and lost several teeth in a barroom brawl. Several weeks later he began to experience sharp stabbing pain in his lower jaw. After visiting the dentist, he was told that he had trigeminal neuralgia.What is this condition and how is it treated? Answer: Trigeminal neuralgia, or tic douloureux, is an inflammation of the trigeminal nerve, probably caused by the fight and subsequent damage to the jaw. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 504, 527 19) How is a receptor potential similar to an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) generated at a synapse? Answer: receptor potential acts essentially the same as an EPSP in that stimulus causes changes in A permeability of the receptor membrane, which results in a graded potential. It will increase or decrease depending on the intensity of the stimulus. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 494 20) How does accommodation of muscle spindles figure in the importance of stretch routines as a warm-up for exercise? Answer: Initially, as muscle spindles are stretched, the reflex sends impulses back to contract the muscle. With prolonged stretching, accommodation decreases the vigor of the stretch reflex somewhat, and the muscle can relax and stretch more, reducing the risk of tearing muscle tissue during exercise. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 525 21) Name three unencapsulated sensory receptors and tell what they are used for. Answer: Free nerve endings are found throughout the body. They are used by most body tissues to 1. determine stretching, joint positioning, etc. In the epidermis they become pain receptors, heat and cold receptors, and possibly very light pressure receptors. 2. Modified free nerve endings called Merkel disks. They are used as light touch receptors. 3. Hair follicle receptors are mechanical receptors that become very fine touch receptors. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 493 22) When we hear a strange sound in a room what perceptual level is activated? Answer: perceptual detection level is the only level acted upon. In some cases this alone allows our The imagination to go ʺwildʺ with possibilities. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 497 23) What is Wallerian degeneration? Answer: complete degeneration of the distal end of an axon after it has been severed. The Diff: 2 Page Ref: 499 Clinical Questions 1) Ralph sustained a leg injury in a bowling accident and had to use crutches. Unfortunately, he never took the time to learn how to use them properly. After two weeks of use, he noticed his fingers were becoming numb. Then he noticed his arms were getting weaker and tingling. What could be his problem? Answer: Compression of the radial nerve (in the region of the armpit) may cause temporary cessation of nervous transmission, often called ʺSaturday night paralysis.ʺ Continued pressure could cause permanent damage. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 514 2) A patient suffers nerve damage to the sciatic nerve, requiring surgery to suture the nerve back together. After surgery, the patient reports that sensation from the lateral and medial sides of the knee seem to be reversed. How could this happen? Answer: suturing the nerve back together, there is no guide to ensure that each nerve fiber continues across In the transection into the same neurilemma in which it started. Nerve fibers can grow into pathways different from their original ones and establish new synapses. The brain cannot keep track of which nerve fibers have grown into different pathways, and projects sensations back to the point of origin. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 499-500 3) David, an aspiring baseball player, was struck on the left side of his face with a fastball pitch. He was not wearing a safety helmet. His zygomatic arch was crushed, as well as parts of the temporal bone. Following the accident and reconstructive surgery, he noted that his left lower eyelid was still drooping and the corner of his mouth sagged. What nerve damage did he sustain? Answer: suffered facial nerve damage on his left side. Due to the bone damage, branches to the eye and jaw He were probably damaged. It is possible that the damage could be reversible if the nerves were not cut or crushed completely. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 505 4) A nurse explains that the excruciating pain of tic douloureux is caused by what? Answer: excruciating pain is caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve. The Diff: 2 Page Ref: 504 5) A patient received Morphine Sulfate, 10 mg IV, two hours ago for standard postoperative pain. She is now crying and complaining of continued pain. Is this an example of pain threshold or pain tolerance? Explain why. Answer: is an example of pain tolerance. Pain tolerance is the maximum amount and duration of pain that This an individual is willing to tolerate. In this case the patient appears to have a low tolerance because she is crying and complaining of continued pain. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 496 6) The patient is receiving transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for back pain. Describe how this may work based on the gate control theory. Answer: According to this theory, small-diameter nerve fibers carry pain stimuli through a gate, but larger diameter nerve fibers going through the same gate can inhibit the transmission of those pain impulses by closing the gate. The electrical stimulation of the skinʹs large touch fibers causes the gates to close, thereby inhibiting pain. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 497 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course NA NA taught by Professor Na during the Spring '12 term at Marquette.

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