Conformity

Conformity - Guest lecture with Dr. Dunn 1 Class exercise...

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Unformatted text preview: Guest lecture with Dr. Dunn 1 Class exercise (1) Stimulus Line A B C Comparison Lines 2 Class exercise (2) Stimulus Line A B C Comparison Lines 3 Class exercise (3) Stimulus Line A B C Comparison Lines 4 Class exercise (4) Stimulus Line A B C Comparison Lines 5 Class exercise (5) Stimulus Line A B C Comparison Lines 6 Conformity “It takes a great deal of bravery to stand up to our enemies, but just as much to stand up to our friends.” ­­Professor Dumbledore, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone 7 Asch’s (1951) line judgment study 6 confederates, 1 real Sj Confeds start out picking right line Then, confeds pick same, wrong line. – Repeated trials Will real Sj conform? 8 Asch’s (1951) line judgment study Results – 66% conform at least once – On average, conform on 4/12 trials Start out resisting Conformity increases w/time 9 Lecture Outline Classic demonstration of conformity (Asch) Why do people conform? – – Normative social influence Informational social influence Types of social norms – Injunctive – Descriptive Overcoming conformity – Should we? – How can we? 10 Asch’s (1951) line judgment study: Recent replication 11 Lecture Outline Classic demonstration of conformity (Asch) Why do people conform? – – Normative social influence Informational social influence Types of social norms – Injunctive – Descriptive Overcoming conformity – Should we? – How can we? 12 Why do people conform? Normative social influence: Conform to gain approval of others or avoid disapproval & rejection. Informational social influence: Conform b/c others provide useful source of information about how to behave. 13 Why do people conform? Normative social influence: Conform to gain approval of others or avoid disapproval & rejection. – When? Fairly ubiquitous – Consequences Public compliance only Informational social influence: Conform b/c others provide useful source of information about how to behave. – When? Situation is ambiguous – Consequences Private acceptance 14 Why do people conform? Normative social influence: Conform to gain approval of others or avoid disapproval & rejection. – When? Fairly ubiquitous – Consequences Public compliance only Informational social influence: Conform b/c others provide useful source of information about how to behave. – When? Situation is ambiguous – Consequences Private acceptance 15 Why do people conform? Normative social influence: Conform to gain approval of others or avoid disapproval & rejection. – When? Fairly ubiquitous – Consequences Public compliance only Informational social influence: Conform b/c others provide useful source of information about how to behave. – When? Situation is ambiguous – Consequences Private acceptance Ex. Asch study: Relatively unambiguous (99% correct answers alone) 16 Little private acceptance (sjs write down right answers) Informational social influence Sherif (1936): Estimate movement of point of light in dark room (autokinetic illusion) – People adjust their judgments to be similar to group members’ – Why informational social influence? Highly ambiguous Private acceptance – Still showed influence of group when tested in private (even a year later) 17 Lecture Outline Classic demonstration of conformity (Asch) Why do people conform? – – Normative social influence Informational social influence Types of social norms – Injunctive – Descriptive Overcoming conformity – Should we? – How can we? 18 Social Norms in everyday life Social norms: Implicit or explicit rules about how to behave (can be stable or variable) – Why don’t men wear skirts? – Why did people wear bell bottoms? – Why are you all sitting in chairs? – Why do Canadians always say sorry? Eh? 19 Two main types of norms Injunctive norms : Perceived rules about how people are supposed to behave Descriptive norms : Perceptions of how people are actually behaving 20 Social Norms: “Face the rear” 21 Social Norms: “Face the rear” Type of Norm: Injunctive or Descriptive? – Descriptive: Facing rear is what people are actually doing Type of Social Influence: Normative or Informational? – Need more info Private acceptance: Would person continue to face rear after others left? Ambiguity: Familiar elevator? – Probably a combination 22 Social Norms: “Only walk on black squares” 23 Social Norms: “Only walk on black squares” Type of Norm: Injunctive or Descriptive? – Injunctive: Sign gave injunction (i.e., command) Descriptive norm is consistent but not necessary Type of Social Influence: Normative or Informational? – Mostly informational Private acceptance: People follow sign even when not being directly watched. Ambiguity: moderately high 24 Social norms Injunctive vs. descriptive norms – Injunctive: “Building One is in a state of emergency; Building Two is secure. You're fine, you can return to your work stations.” – Descriptive norm Lots of people fleeing But, in some offices, strong norm to keep working 25 Social norms Informational vs. Normative Social Influence – High ambiguity informational influence powerful – Reduced concerns about social disapproval? Probably still some role for normative social influence 26 Summary so far… Types of Social Influence – Normative (e.g., Asch’s line study) Almost ubiquitous Public compliance – Informational (e.g., Sherif’s light study) High ambiguity Private acceptance Types of Social Norms – Injunctive (should) – Descriptive (actually) 27 Lecture Outline Classic demonstration of conformity (Asch) Why do people conform? – – Normative social influence Informational social influence Types of social norms – Injunctive – Descriptive Overcoming conformity – Should we? – How can we? 28 Breaking Social Norms at a Cocktail Party Look for norm violations by Michael and Dwight Would you want to invite these guys to your party? 29 Value of Conformity We’re designed for social life. – Society wouldn’t work w/out norms. – Break norms actual social rejection Sororities: Compliance w/ bulimia norms predicts popularity (Crandall, 1988) But can be problematic – Dangerous norms – Norms that are no longer appropriate 30 Resisting conformity Awareness of norms – Recognize that “go along with sorority sisters” norm is driving behavior & no longer appropriate stop purging Find a fellow deviant – Asch study: One confederate deviates conformity drops from 32% to 6% Other confederate doesn’t even have to be right! Mere deviation enough! Idiosyncrasy credits – Can get away with breaking occasional norm around friends. 31 Lecture Summary Much of our behavior is guided by social norms – Reasons for conforming Informational Normative – Types of norms Injunctive descriptive Value of conforming (e.g., following norms) – Social glue – But dangerous potential Possible to resist conformity! 32 – Awareness, allies, & idiosyncrasy credits ...
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