Motivation 1

Motivation 1 - Motivation Motivation Psychology 100 Dr....

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Unformatted text preview: Motivation Motivation Psychology 100 Dr. Claire Ashton-James Definition Definition Motivation: – The set of factors that initiate and direct The behaviour, usually toward some goal behaviour, Motivation Overview Motivation Internal factors – Instincts – Drives – Intrinsic motivation External factors: – Incentives – Extrinsic motivators Maslow: Hierarchy of needs Internal motivators: Instincts Internal Unlearned patterns of responding patterns responding controlled by specific triggering stimuli in the world the – Example: Hunting behaviour, in some species species Problem: How many human instincts are there? there? Tendencies, complex behaviours are not instincts – Not triggered by specific stimuli, not unlearned Drive Drive Primary Drive: – Psychological state that arises in response to an internal physiological need internal Examples: hunger, thirst, sex Homeostasis: Process through which the body maintains a steady state maintains – Example: Important to maintain a constant internal temperature temperature – Reducing drive > Restore homeostasis Secondary Drive: – A drive learned by association with a primary drive Example: the need for money, because money = sex, food, shelter. shelter. The Drive for Food: Internal The Factors Factors Brain monitors stomach fullness, chemical signals signals – Glucose (sugar) – Insulin (hormone released by pancreas) Hypothalamus especially important for regulating hunger regulating – When ventromedial hypothalamus lesioned, When ventromedial lesioned undereating/underweight results undereating/underweight Other important regions: brain stem, Other hippocampus hippocampus The drive for Food: External factors The Eating habits involving times, places, Eating kinds of food you’re used to can affect kinds food choices food – Includes cultural differences in eating Includes cultural customs customs Food cues can trigger eating as well, even Food cues when a person does not physically need food food – Includes sight, smell, past associations The Drive for Sex: Internal factors The In most animals, sex hormones strongly In hormones determine sexual behaviour determine behaviour In humans, sex hormones play some In humans sex hormones role, but a lesser one than in other lesser animals animals – Example: Testosterone affects sexual desire Testosterone in males and females in – However: Sexual desire may persist after sex hormones decline (for example, after menopause) menopause) Sexual Behaviour: External Factors (Pp. 444 - 445) 444 What signals in the environment can What environment stimulate sexual behaviour? stimulate – Visual stimuli Physical appearance; explicit depictions of sex – Touch Erogenous zones – Smell Pheromones: Chemicals that stimulate sexual activity in animals; less effect on humans activity Mate Selection Mate Mate selection strongly influenced by Mate influenced sociological factors sociological factors – Sexual scripts: Learned “programs” that instruct us on how, why and what to do in interactions with sexual partners sexual Example: Do you expect sex to lead to marriage? There may be evolutionary influences also, There evolutionary reflecting gender-specific adaptive problems reflecting – Example: Value placed on financial prospects (women) vs. attractiveness, youth (men) (women) – Note that these behaviours are still flexible Cross-Cultural Mating Strategies Cross-Cultural Figure 11.3 Sexual Orientation Sexual A person’s sexual, emotional attraction to person’s attraction members of the same and/or opposite sex members – Includes homosexuality, heterosexuality, bisexuality What factors determine sexual orientation? What factors – Historically, psychologists believed that Historically, dysfunctional home environments led to dysfunctional home homosexuality; this view no longer accepted no – Likely some biological basis, but true cause still Likely biological but poorly understood poorly Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic External factors in the environment that External exert pulling effects on our actions exert – Example: Good grades motivate you to study – Compare to drives: Less an internal “push” Compare internal than an external “pull” external Interact with internal factors – An internal drive, such as hunger, can An increase motivating effect of an incentive, such as a food reward such Intrinsic Motivation (Pp. 436-438) (Pp. Intrinsic motivation: Goal-directed behaviour that seems to be entirely self-motivated that – Actions that are rewarding for their own sake – Can actually be reduced by external rewards We are intrinsically motivated to do tasks that We provide us with a sense of: provide – Competence – Autonomy – Belonging Control and Overjustification (P. 438) (P. A reward can lead to a negative effect reward negative when: when: – people see external rewards as indirect way of controlling behaviour of – external rewards lead to overjustification, external overjustification i.e., a second motivation is added, eating away at intrinsic motivation away Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s (P.439) (P.439) Needs differ in origin: some biological, Needs differ biological some psychological psychological – Which ones come first? Maslow: Needs are prioritized Maslow: prioritized – Physiological come first; others such as first others social and esthetic needs come later social Unfilled needs are often the basis for action basis – Difficult to test scientifically, but influential A Hierarchy of Needs Figure 11.2 (P. 435) (P. ...
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