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Personality 1 - Psychology 100 Psychology 100 Personality 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 100 Psychology 100 Personality 1 Dr. Claire Ashton­James What is Personality? What do you think of when you think of personality He has a good personality Social skills; to be liked She has a lot of personality Social impact; character He has a neurotic personality Strongest characteristic 2 A pattern of responding Jane and Bill are getting their first mid term back from their psych 100 course. They both received a D: Jane: Goes to the professor in tears about her grade, confused and upset, but her intention is to find out how to do better next time Bill: Tells all his friends how bad the professor is and eventually drops the course. 3 Personality in everyday life Jen talking about her date: “It’s his personality that I like” Evaluation Bill talking about his friend “He is a real outgoing person who is independent” Description Alex complaining about his partner “She always does things that she knows will annoy me” Continuity 4 Defining Personality Thoughts Beliefs, values, expectations I think that most people can be trusted Feelings Emotion tendencies/moods I feel happy most of the time Behaviors Actions; patterns of responding I go to classes regularly 5 Scientific Definition Consistent and enduring patterns of thoughts, Consistent feelings, and behaviors that influence people’s feelings, responses to their environment responses 6 Preview: The Scientific and Practical Problems of Personality What is the proper way to quantify, describe, and measure the traits that make us both consistent and unique? How do personality traits develop? How do personality theories deal with variation and change in the same person’s behaviour? 7 Trait Taxonomies Systems for distinguishing the most important individual differences in personality Usually associated with an inventory of psychometric tests designed to measure these traits Self­report Observer­report Behaviour (speed initiating conversation, heart rate) 8 Approaches to Conceptualizing and Measuring Practical Problems Factor analytic approach Cattell’s source traits Eysenck’s superfactors The Big Five Allport’s trait theory Cardinal, central, and secondary traits Personality tests Self­report inventories Projective personality test 9 The Factor Analytic Approach Factor analysis: Mathematical procedure used to analyze correlations among test responses Example: Asking people how well a particular term (“brooding”, “friendly”, etc.) describes them 4500 trait terms in English dictionaries Main question: Which terms cluster together statistically? Terms that go together likely reflect some general personality characteristics 10 Cattell’s Source Traits Cattell used thousands of terms to establish the existence of 16 main personality traits Each a “dimension” or continuum between two opposites Examples: Reserved Outgoing Trusting Suspicious 11 Eysenck’s Three Dimensions Eysenck used a similar statistical approach as Cattell, but argued that there are really only three main factors Called primary dimensions Three dimensions: Extroversion Neuroticism Psychoticism 12 Eysenck’s Three Dimensions of Personality Figure 12.1 13 The Big Five An intermediate between Cattell’s fine­ grained approach and Eysenck’s general one Factor analysis approach in which there are 5 personality dimensions including: Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness to experience 14 Alternatives to the Big Five Canadian psychologists have addressed limitations of Big Five factor model Paunonen (1998) of the University of Western Ontario wondered how specific lower­order traits would compare in predicting observable behaviour Undergraduates completed general inventory of 22 lower­order traits measures When analyzed together, lower­order traits offered significantly better predication of behavioural criteria Conclusion: Specific behaviours may be better predicted by specific traits 15 The Big Five Dimensions Figure 12.2 16 Allport’s Trait Theory Focus is on individuals, not statistical analysis of groups, in contrast to factor analytic approach Everyone’s personality described by a set of traits Central traits: 5­10 descriptive traits that describe a person Secondary traits: Less obvious characteristics that appear only under certain circumstances Some individuals have cardinal traits, “ruling passions” that dominate their lives and 17 personalities Self­Report Questionnaires Self­report questionnaires ask people to answer groups of questions about how they typically think, act, and feel Responses compared to averages compiled from large groups of prior test takers Main uses include hiring decisions, diagnosing physiological disorders Most widely used: MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) 18 MMPI Profiles Figure 12.4 19 Projective Personality Tests Projective tests ask people to interpret unstructured or ambiguous stimuli Idea is that you “project” true thoughts, feeling into the interpretation, revealing personality Most widely used: Rorschach: “Ink blots” Thematic Apperception Test: Pictures of people, situations 20 Projective Tests Figure 12.5 21 ...
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