Personality 2

Personality 2 - Psychology 100 Psychology 100 Personality 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 100 Psychology 100 Personality 2 Dr. Claire Ashton­James Review Questions Review Questions Who was the first to use a factor analytic approach to determine a set of underlying traits? How many traits did he come up with? What traits are identified as being “The Big Five”? Describe each facet of the Big Five What is the sixth facet that has recently been identified? Ten Item Personality Inventory Ten Item Personality Inventory Self­report measure of the big five. Instructions: You will be reading a number of personality traits that may or may not apply to you. Please rate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement using the following scale: Ten Item Personality Inventory Ten Item Personality Inventory 1 = strongly disagree 2 = moderately disagree 3 = slightly disagree 4 = neither agree nor disagree 5 = slightly agree 6 = moderately agree 7 = strongly agree Ten Item Personality Inventory Ten Item Personality Inventory I see myself as: 1. Extraverted, enthusiastic 2. Critical, quarrelsome 3. Dependable, self­disciplined 4. Anxious, easily upset 5. Open to new experiences, complex 6. Reserved, quiet 7. Sympathetic, warm 8. Disorganized, careless 9. Calm, emotionally stable 10. Conventional, uncreative Ten Item Personality Inventory Ten Item Personality Inventory Extraversion Reverse your score on #6 #6R + #1 / 2 = E score Neuroticism Reverse score on #9 #9R + #4 / 2 = N score Conscientiousness Reverse score on #8 #8R + #3 / 2 = C score Agreeableness Reverse score #2 #2R + #7 / 2 = A score Openness to experience Reverse score on #10 #10R + #5 / 2 = O score Ten Item Personality Inventory Ten Item Personality Inventory How do you compare to the average college student? Extraversion = 3.25 Neuroticism = 2.97 Agreeableness = 3.64 Conscientiousness = 3.44 Openness to experience = 3.48 Approaches to Personality Approaches to Personality Freud’s psychodynamic approach Later psychodynamic approaches Humanistic approaches to personality Social­cognitive approaches to personality The Structure of the Mind The Structure of the Mind Psychodynamic theory holds that much of behaviour is governed by unconscious forces Mind is divided into three parts: Conscious mind contains things that occupy one’s current attention Preconscious mind contains things that aren’t currently in consciousness, but can be accessed Unconscious mind contains memories, urges and conflicts that are beyond awareness Role of the Unconscious Mind Role of the Unconscious Mind Contains memories, urges that are forbidden or dangerous (more on this later) These are kept from consciousness, but can still cause problems Example: Prior traumatic experience can cause irrational anxiety Dreams express contents of unconscious mind Manifest content: What you remember from the dream Latent content: True unconscious meaning of the dream The Structure of Personality The Structure of Personality Personality is divided into three parts: Id: Governed by inborn instinctual drives, especially those related to sex and aggression Obeys the pleasure principle Superego: Motivates people to act in an ideal fashion, according to moral customs of parents and culture Obeys the idealistic principle Ego: Induces people to act with reason and deliberation, and to conform to the requirements of the outside world Obeys the reality principle Id is entirely in unconscious mind; superego and ego divided between conscious and unconscious Freud’s View of Personality Freud’s View of Personality Figure 12.7 Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Different parts of personality are in constant conflict, especially with regard to the id Defense mechanisms ward off the resulting anxiety from these confrontations These are unconscious Often involve self­deception or replacing one urge with another The Arsenal of Defense The Arsenal of Defense Mechanisms Denial: Refusal to believe information that leads to anxiety Repression: Defense mechanism used to bury anxiety­producing thoughts and feelings in the unconscious Projection: Dealing with unacceptable feelings or wishes by attributing them to others Reaction formation: Transforming an anxiety­producing wish into a kind of opposite, or behaving opposite to how you really feel Sublimation: Channeling unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable activities Psychosexual Development Psychosexual Development Conflicts, memories, urges in unconscious mind come from experiences in childhood Emerging sexuality, pleasure, is the focus of many stages of development Each stage has a focus of early sexuality/pleasure Failure to move through a stage properly leads to fixation Fixated individuals continue to act in ways appropriate for a much earlier stage Stages of Psychosexual Stages of Psychosexual Development (Pp. 490­492) First year: Oral stage Pleasure comes from sucking, putting things in mouth Fixation at this stage can cause overeating, smoking, nail biting Second year: Anal stage Pleasure comes from retaining or passing feces Fixation at this stage can cause excessive neatness or excessive messiness Stages of Psychosexual Development Stages of Psychosexual Development Ages 3 to 5: Phallic stage Pleasure comes from self­stimulation of genitals Erotic feelings directed towards opposite­sex parent Fixation here can cause relationship, sexual problems; also Oedipus or Electra complex Ages 5 to puberty: Latency period Sexual feelings suppressed; energy directed towards school, social relationships Puberty to adulthood: Genital stage Mature sexual relationships with opposite sex Neo­Freudians: Adler, Jung, Horney Neo­Freudians: Adler, Jung, Horney (Pp. 491­492) Alder: Dealing with basic feelings of inferiority guides personality development Jung: Each person has a “collective unconsciousness,” or symbols and ideas shared with the rest of humanity Horney: Disagreed with Freud’s male­ dominated view of sexuality, especially “penis envy,” irrational beliefs, not unconscious conflicts, cause psychological problems Was Freud Right? Was Freud Right? (Pp. 492­493) Extremely influential on Western culture, but not accepted by many modern psychologists Criticisms: Lack of scientific evidence for concepts including parts of personality, defense mechanisms Over­reliance on case studies of disturbed individuals Biased against women Freud attributed reports of sexual abuse to unconscious conflicts Humanistic Approaches to Personality Humanistic Approaches to Personality Focuses on people’s unique capacity for choice, responsibility and growth Rogers: Personality comes from self­concept We tend to act in accord with self­concept; Problems arise from incongruence between self­ concept and experiences, “conditions of worth” Maslow: Personality reflects where you are in a hierarchy of needs We all have a need for self­actualization Problems arise from failure to satisfy needs Evaluating Humanistic Theories Evaluating Humanistic Theories Also influential, especially with regard to optimistic view of human potential for positive growth Emphasis on personal choice, responsibility, free will balance Freud’s ideas well Criticisms: Hard to predict or explain why drive for growth, self­actualization are sometimes expressed and sometimes not Too optimistic? Next Lecture Next Lecture Cognitive­Behavioural Approaches to Personality ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2012 for the course PSYC 102 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '08 term at UBC.

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