Personality 3 - Psychology 100 Psychology 100 Personality...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 100 Psychology 100 Personality Dr. Claire Ashton­James Cognitive­Behavioural Approaches to Cognitive­Behavioural Approaches to Personality Experience, plus how people interpret experience, determine personality growth and development Has it’s roots in the behaviourist tradition; emphasizes learned behaviours over innate nature Important concepts: Locus of Control Self­Efficacy Self­Monitoring Need for Cognition Need to Belong Locus of Control Locus of Control What it is? Refers to an individual’s perception of the underlying causes of events in his/her life. Do you believe that your destiny is controlled by yourself or by external forces (fate, god, powerful others)? Research suggests LOC is largely learned Can shift in response to significant life events Locus of Control Locus of Control Example scale items: 1. a) Many of the unhappy things in people’s lives are partly due to bad luck. b) People’s misfortunes result from the mistakes they make. 2. a) In the long run, people get the respect they deserve in this world b) Unfortunately, an individual’s worth often passes unrecognized no matter how hard he tries. Locus of Control Locus of Control What it predicts: In general, it seems to be psychologically healthy to perceive that one has control over those things which one is capable of influencing However, internals can be psychological unhealthy and unstable Internal orientation usually needs to be matched by competence, self­efficacy and opportunity so that the person is able to successfully experience control. Internal people who lack competence become neurotic, anxious and depressed. Externals can lead very easy going relaxed, happy lives. Self­Efficacy Self­Efficacy What it is: Perceived self­efficacy reflects optimistic self­ belief. The belief that one can perform a novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity Self­Efficacy Self­Efficacy Example scale items: I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough If someone opposes me, I can find the means and ways to get what I want. It is easy for me to stick to my aims and accomplish my goals I am confident that I could deal efficiently with unexpected events. Self­Efficacy Self­Efficacy What it predicts: Coping with daily hassles as well as adaptation after experiencing stressful life events Facilitates goal­setting, effort­investment, persistence in the face of barriers and recovery from set backs. Positive resistance resource factor Each item refers to successful coping and implies an internal­stable attribution of success. Self­Efficacy Self­Efficacy What it predicts: Correlated with positive emotions, dispositional optimism, and work satisfaction Negative correlation with depression, anxiety, stress, burnout, and health complaints. In studies with cardiac patients, their recovery over a half­year time period could be predicted by pre­surgery self­efficacy. Indicator of quality of life and life satisfaction Self­Monitoring Self­Monitoring What it is: Self­monitoring is the process through which people regulate their own behaviour in order to be perceived by others in a favourable manner. High self­monitors tailor their behaviour to fit different situations Low self­monitors behave consistently across situations and social groups Self­Monitoring Self­Monitoring High self­monitors: High concern with the social appropriateness of one’s actions Use of social comparison information Ability to monitor one’s behaviour to fit different situations Ability to do this in specific situations Trait variability Self­Monitoring Self­Monitoring Example scale items: True or False I find it hard to imitate the behaviour of other people At parties and social gatherings, I do not attempt to do or say things that others will like. I can argue only for ideas that I already believe I can make impromptu speeches even on topics about which I have almost no information In a group of people, I am rarely the center of attention I have trouble changing my behaviour to suit different people and situations. Self­Monitoring Self­Monitoring What it predicts: Trait consistency vs. variability across situations. Trait consistency can be found in low self­ monitors A situationist framework is more appropriate for understanding high self­monitors. Need for cognition Need for cognition What it is: Dispositional tendency to engage in thought more readily and more deeply Need for cognition Need for cognition Example items: 1= completely false – 5 = completely true I would prefer complex to simple problems I like to have the responsibility of handling a situation that requires a lot of thinking Thinking is not my idea of fun I would rather do something that requires little thought than something that is sure to challenge my thinking abilities Need for Cognition Need for Cognition What it predicts: Academic success Life satisfaction Less susceptibility to persuasion Cognitive style (heuristic vs. systematic) Occupation Learning style (rational vs. experiential) Is the Social­Cognitive Approach Is the Social­Cognitive Approach Right? Idea that some personality traits are learned is widely accepted, as is the role of cognitive factors in learning Example: Expectations, beliefs, and values Criticisms: Over­emphasizes how a person responds in particular situations rather than on traits of person as a whole Under­emphasizes biological, genetic factors in development The Person­Situation Debate The Person­Situation Debate Do people really behave consistently across situations, or is behaviour just determined by the situation? Evidence suggests there’s more consistency in behaviour within the same kind of situation, less across situations Self­monitoring is one determinant of consistency High self­monitors tend to adjust behaviour to situation Most psychologists believe that personality and situation interact Genetic Factors in Personality Genetic Factors in Personality Are identical twins highly similar in personality, even when raised apart? And: are identicals more similar than fraternals? MMPI scores indicate higher degree of similarity between identicals than between fraternals, irrespective of raising environment At least some traits are genetically determined However: How they are expressed may depend on environment The Genetics of Personality The Genetics of Personality Figure 12.9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2012 for the course PSYC 102 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '08 term at The University of British Columbia.

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