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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 100
Dr. Claire AshtonJames CognitiveBehavioural Approaches to CognitiveBehavioural Approaches to Personality Experience, plus how people interpret experience, determine personality growth and development Has it’s roots in the behaviourist tradition; emphasizes learned behaviours over innate nature Important concepts: Locus of Control SelfEfficacy SelfMonitoring Need for Cognition Need to Belong Locus of Control
Locus of Control What it is? Refers to an individual’s perception of the underlying causes of events in his/her life.
Do you believe that your destiny is controlled by yourself or by external forces (fate, god, powerful others)?
Research suggests LOC is largely learned
Can shift in response to significant life events Locus of Control
Locus of Control Example scale items: 1. a) Many of the unhappy things in people’s lives are partly due to bad luck.
b) People’s misfortunes result from the mistakes they make. 2. a) In the long run, people get the respect they deserve in this world
b) Unfortunately, an individual’s worth often passes unrecognized no matter how hard he tries. Locus of Control
Locus of Control What it predicts: In general, it seems to be psychologically healthy to perceive that one has control over those things which one is capable of influencing However, internals can be psychological unhealthy and unstable Internal orientation usually needs to be matched by competence, selfefficacy and opportunity so that the person is able to successfully experience control. Internal people who lack competence become neurotic, anxious and depressed. Externals can lead very easy going relaxed, happy lives. SelfEfficacy
SelfEfficacy What it is: Perceived selfefficacy reflects optimistic self belief.
The belief that one can perform a novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity SelfEfficacy
SelfEfficacy Example scale items: I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough
If someone opposes me, I can find the means and ways to get what I want.
It is easy for me to stick to my aims and accomplish my goals
I am confident that I could deal efficiently with unexpected events. SelfEfficacy
SelfEfficacy What it predicts: Coping with daily hassles as well as adaptation after experiencing stressful life events
Facilitates goalsetting, effortinvestment, persistence in the face of barriers and recovery from set backs.
Positive resistance resource factor
Each item refers to successful coping and implies an internalstable attribution of success. SelfEfficacy
SelfEfficacy What it predicts: Correlated with positive emotions, dispositional optimism, and work satisfaction
Negative correlation with depression, anxiety, stress, burnout, and health complaints.
In studies with cardiac patients, their recovery over a halfyear time period could be predicted by presurgery selfefficacy.
Indicator of quality of life and life satisfaction SelfMonitoring
SelfMonitoring What it is: Selfmonitoring is the process through which people regulate their own behaviour in order to be perceived by others in a favourable manner.
High selfmonitors tailor their behaviour to fit different situations
Low selfmonitors behave consistently across situations and social groups SelfMonitoring
SelfMonitoring High selfmonitors: High concern with the social appropriateness of one’s actions
Use of social comparison information
Ability to monitor one’s behaviour to fit different situations
Ability to do this in specific situations
Trait variability SelfMonitoring
SelfMonitoring Example scale items: True or False I find it hard to imitate the behaviour of other people At parties and social gatherings, I do not attempt to do or say things that others will like. I can argue only for ideas that I already believe I can make impromptu speeches even on topics about which I have almost no information In a group of people, I am rarely the center of attention I have trouble changing my behaviour to suit different people and situations. SelfMonitoring
SelfMonitoring What it predicts: Trait consistency vs. variability across situations.
Trait consistency can be found in low self
A situationist framework is more appropriate for understanding high selfmonitors. Need for cognition
Need for cognition What it is: Dispositional tendency to engage in thought more readily and more deeply Need for cognition
Need for cognition Example items: 1= completely false – 5 = completely true I would prefer complex to simple problems I like to have the responsibility of handling a situation that requires a lot of thinking
Thinking is not my idea of fun
I would rather do something that requires little thought than something that is sure to challenge my thinking abilities Need for Cognition
Need for Cognition What it predicts: Academic success
Life satisfaction Less susceptibility to persuasion Cognitive style (heuristic vs. systematic)
Occupation Learning style (rational vs. experiential) Is the SocialCognitive Approach Is the SocialCognitive Approach Right? Idea that some personality traits are learned is widely accepted, as is the role of cognitive factors in learning
Example: Expectations, beliefs, and values Criticisms: Overemphasizes how a person responds in particular situations rather than on traits of person as a whole
Underemphasizes biological, genetic factors in development The PersonSituation Debate
The PersonSituation Debate Do people really behave consistently across situations, or is behaviour just determined by the situation? Evidence suggests there’s more consistency in behaviour within the same kind of situation, less across situations Selfmonitoring is one determinant of consistency
High selfmonitors tend to adjust behaviour to situation Most psychologists believe that personality and situation interact Genetic Factors in Personality
Genetic Factors in Personality Are identical twins highly similar in personality, even when raised apart? And: are identicals more similar than fraternals? MMPI scores indicate higher degree of similarity between identicals than between fraternals, irrespective of raising environment At least some traits are genetically determined However: How they are expressed may depend on environment The Genetics of Personality
The Genetics of Personality Figure 12.9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2012 for the course PSYC 102 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '08 term at The University of British Columbia.
- Spring '08