Ch 8 - Learning

Ch 8 - Learning - Learning Chapter8 1 TrueorFalse? 1. Lowly...

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1 Learning Chapter 8 2 True or False? 1. Lowly animals, like sea snails, behave by instinct and are incapable of learning. 2. Humans are the only animals that can learn behaviors merely by observing others perform them. 3. The study of inner thoughts, feelings, and motives has always occupied a central place in psychology. 4. A person can be more readily conditioned to fear snakes and spiders than to fear flowers 5. With training, pigeons can be taught to discriminate a Bach composition from a Stravinsky composition 6. Negative reinforcement is another term for punishment. 7. Psychologists agree that punishment, regardless of its form, has little effect on Behaviour. 8. Animals learn only when rewards are given. 9. Animals can learn to make virtually any response if consistently rewarded for it. 10. Research indicates that televised violence leads to aggressive Behaviour by children and teenagers who watch the programs 3 What is Learning? Classical Conditioning ± Pavlov’s Experiments ± Extending Pavlov’s Understanding ± Pavlov’s Legacy Operant Conditioning ± Skinner’s Experiments ± Extending Skinner’s Understanding ± Skinner’s Legacy ± Contrasting Classical & Operant Conditioning Learning By Observation/Other Types of Learning Overview
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4 What is Learning? Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior, knowledge, capability, or attitude that is acquired through experience and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, maturation, etc. A change in neural function as a consequence of experience. Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge or skill through study, experience or teaching; it is a process that depends on experience and leads to long-term changes in behavior potential. 5 Types of Learning? Non-associative learning: Learning in which there is no connected stimulus. Habituation: The decline in the tendency to respond to non-changing inconsequential stimuli Sensitization: An increase in the tendency to respond to an event that has been repeated Orienting response: An inborn tendency to shift one’s focus of attention toward a novel event Associative Learning : Learning connected to a positive or negative stimulus. Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning 6 Types of Learning? Cognitive mental skills (Knowledge) Affective growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) Psychomotor manual or physical skills (Skills)
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7 Associationism has a long intellectual tradition reaching back to Aristotle (Lock, Hume, etc) There are four defining principles which all associationist approaches share: all ideas, and other mental elements, are associated together in the mind through experience. all ideas can be reduced to a basic stock of 'simple ideas'. these simple ideas are elementary, unstructured sensations.
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Ch 8 - Learning - Learning Chapter8 1 TrueorFalse? 1. Lowly...

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