01 The Study of Psychology

01 The Study of Psychology - The Story of Psychology 100...

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1 The Story of The Story of Psychology Psychology Ψ 100 100 Sep 8 Sep 8 ‘08 08 Overview Overview What is psychology What makes psychology interesting & complex Why does psychology use/need the scientific method Schools of thought that shaped psychology What do psychologist do Learning Objectives Learning Objectives After this lecture & reading the prologue, you should be able to Define contemporary psychology Trace psychology’s roots Explain how early psychologists tried to understand the mind’s structure and functions Describe the evolution of psychology from the 1920s onwards Summarize the nature-nurture debate, describe natural selection Identify the main levels of analysis in the bio-psychological approach Identify subfields of psychology
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2 Where is psychology? Where is psychology? Physics Philosophy Chemistry Art ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 What is Psychology? What is Psychology? It is a social science … but not limited to human beings. Social sciences … the field of human knowledge that deals with all aspects of the group life of human beings Anthropology Sociology Geography History Economics What is Psychology? What is Psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Themes of Ψ : shared with philosophy & humanities Methods of ψ : shared with natural sciences
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3 What is Psychology? What is Psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Core features of the scientific method: A way of knowing It begins with hypotheses (ideas, propositions) Hypothesis are tested empirically Hypothesis must be testable or falsifiable Observations / measures / data must be reliable Observations / measures / data must be public Claims: True/False? Claims: True/False? Which claims can be addressed by science? The best things in life are free Shakespeare’s Richard III is a better play than Romeo and Juliet Abortion is wrong The mind is just like a computer Attitudes affect cancer Pornography is harmful 2 + 2 = 4 Ψ is complicated is complicated Because: the discipline is theoretically diverse the discipline is evolving in a socio-historical context behavior is determined by multiple causes behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage heredity and environment jointly influence behavior our experience of the world is highly subjective
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4 Ψ Is Theoretically Diverse Is Theoretically Diverse A theory is a system of interrelated concepts used To explain a set of observations There is no one grand theory to explain all behavior A set of theories provide a more complete explanation than any one theory could Contemporary schools of thought in psychology Psychodynamic approach Behavioral approach
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01 The Study of Psychology - The Story of Psychology 100...

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