Ch 5 - Sensation

Ch 5 - Sensation - Sensation Chapter5 1 True/False 1. On a...

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1 Sensation Chapter 5 2 True/False 1. On a clear, dark night most of us can see a candle flame close to 50 kilometres away. 2. Advertisers are able to shape our buying habits through subliminal messages. 3. Constant eye movements prevent our vision from being seriously disrupted. 4. The retina of the eye is actually brain tissue that migrates to the eye during early fatal development. 5. If we stare at a green square for a while and then look at a white sheet of paper, we see red. 6. People who live in noisy environments are more likely to suffer from high blood pressure, anxiety, and feelings of helplessness. 7. Blind musicians are more likely than sighted ones to develop perfect pitch. 8. Touching adjacent cold and pressure spots triggers a sense of wetness. 9. People who are born without the ability to feel pain usually die by early adulthood. 10. Without their smells, a cold cup of coffee may be hard to distinguish from a glass of red wine. 3 Overview ± Psychophysics ± Vision ± Hearing ± Other senses ± Touch ± Taste ± Smell ± Body position & Internal Senses
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4 ± To represent the world, we must detect physical energy (a stimulus) from the environment and convert it into neural signals. This is a process called sensation . ± When we select, organize, and interpret our sensations, the process is called perception . 5 Interactive Processing ± Bottom-up Processing : Analysis of the stimulus begins with the sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind. ± Top-down Processing : Information processing is guided by higher-level mental processes as we construct perceptions, drawing on our experience and expectations. ± Processing of several aspects of the stimulus simultaneously is called parallel processing . The brain divides a visual scene into subdivisions such as color, depth, form and movement. 6
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7 8 Psychophysics ± The study of how physical stimuli (sensations) are translated into psychological experiences (perceptions) ± The goal is to provide a quantitative description of the relationship between the intensity of sensations and perceptions ± One of the oldest topics … at the foundation of psychology as a discipline 9 Thresholds Thresholds Absolute threshold … a dividing line between what (signal) has detectable energy and what does not Difference threshold … the minimum amount of stimulus intensity change required to produce a noticeable (perceptible) change (JND: just noticeable difference)
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10 Method: Absolute Method: Absolute Threshold Threshold Determined by means of method of limits Descending Limit: Present a stimulus on each trial, most intense on first trial, then reduce by a small amount for each subsequent trial Ascending Limit: Present a stimulus on each trial, least intense on first trial, then increase by a small amount for each subsequent trial Subject’s task on each trial is to report whether a stimulus was / was not presented Record subjects’ yes (stimulus was presented) and no
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Ch 5 - Sensation - Sensation Chapter5 1 True/False 1. On a...

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