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Exam 2 Review - RELATIONSHIP BETWEE N Q K Q = K equilibrium...

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEE N Q & K Q = K; equilibrium, no shift Q>K products more than reactants, shift will go to the left (reactants) Q<K reactants more than products, shift to right (products) G=0, K=1 -G, K>1 +G, K<1 ARRHENIUS -Acids produce hydrogen ions & bases produce hydroxide ions BRONSTED- LOWRY DEFINITION -Acid is a proton donor (H+) & base is proton acceptor HYDRONIUM ION -Proton transferred to water molecule to form H3O+ HA + H20 ------ H30 + A- Acid Base Conjugate Acid Conjugate base CONJUGATE BASE -Everything that remains of acid CONJUGATE ACID -Everything that remains of base ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANT Ka ACID STRENGTH
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-Defined by equilibrium position of its dissociation reaction -Strength of the acid is inversely related to strength of the conjugate base STRONG ACID -Equilibrium lies for to the right & almost all HA is dissociated -Water is a stronger base than conjugate base -Yields weak conjugate base -Ka is large & small pKa WEAK ACID -Equilibrium lies far to right & HA dissociates in small amounts -Conjugate base much stronger than water -Yields strong conjugate base -Ka is small DIPROTIC ACID -Acid having two acidic protons -Strong acids: sulfuric acid [H2SO4], hydrochloric acid [HCl], nitric acid [HNO3], & perchloric acid [HCLO4] OXYACIDS
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