PSY1101_Lecture4_Jan19and20 - Using Standard Deviation...

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Unformatted text preview: Using Standard Deviation Using Standard Deviation Test #1 Your score: 75% Class average: 65% Standard Deviation: 10 You scored one SD above the mean You scored better than 84% of the class Test #2 Your score: 75% Class average: 65% Standard Deviation: 20 You scored one half of a SD above the mean You scored better than 67% of the class 3 2 1 1 2 3 Number of Standard Deviations Statistical Significance Statistical Significance Usually looking at differences between groups A statistical test will determine if the difference is significant Taking into account the means (mean difference) and the standard deviation A difference is more likely to be found to be statistically significant if: 1) the difference is reliable i.e., likely to get the same result if repeat the procedure Sample is representative There is low variability Many participants 2) if the difference is large Statistical test will evaluate the probability of getting a difference that large If it is less than 5% probability, it is statistically significant Statistical significance does not mean practically significant Video #1 Video #1 Neurons Neurons Brain cells, or nerve cells Anatomy cell body (soma) dendrites axon Terminal branches (terminal buttons) myelin sheath Neurons Neurons Action Potential Action Potential Electrical signal that travels down the axon Signal transmitted along the axon by the diffusion of charged atoms This membrane is semi­ permeable Series of channel openings along the axon that allows the diffusion Action Potential Action Potential Inside of the cell is negatively charged, compared to the outside of the cell Electrical potential Resting membrane potential Inside the axon Outside the axon Action Potential Action Potential Sodium channels open Inside becomes positive Depolarization Refractory period Myelin Sheath Myelin Sheath Insulation= 绝绝 Action potential only occurs between sections of myelin Axon Terminals Axon Terminals Synapse Synaptic gap Synapse Synapse Axon terminals release neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter binds to a receptor Triggers the opening of ion channels NOT an action potential Reuptake & Threshold Reuptake & Threshold Reuptake Dendrites/cell body receive signals from many neurons Most excitatory, some inhibitory Summation Threshold All­or­none Video #2 Video #2 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Ach Junction of motor neuron and muscle Motor neurons, sensory neurons, and interneurons Ach stimulates muscle to contract Acetylcholine Agonists & Acetylcholine Agonists & Antagonists Certain drugs are structurally similar to neurotransmitters Agonists Antagonists agonist Curare Blocks the receptor Black widow spider venom Structural similarity or block reuptake antagonist Botulinum toxin antagonist Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters The Nervous System The Nervous System 2 major divisions 1) The central nervous system The brain and spinal cord 2) The Peripheral nervous system Nerves Connect the brain to sensory organs, muscles, and glands The Peripheral Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System Dived into the somatic and the autonomic nervous system Somatic Nervous System Responsible for the voluntary control of skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Controls the (mostly) involuntary muscles (e.g., heart, lungs, blood vessels, digestive system) as well as certain glands Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Sympathetic Fight­or­flight Expends energy Parasympathetic Rest­and­digest Conserves energy Central Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain and spinal cord Brain 40 billion neurons About 10,000 connections each 400 trillion synapses Neural Networks Neural Networks Systems of neurons with a common purpose Some innate Visual perception Reflexes Some learned Neurons that fire together, wire together Spinal Cord Spinal Cord The spinal cord is the connection between the brain and the peripheral nervous system Sensory neurons enter from sensory systems Motor neurons from the brain exit Reflexes ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2012 for the course PSY 1101 taught by Professor Textbook during the Winter '08 term at University of Ottawa.

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