PSY1101_Lecture6_Jan26and27_COMPLETE(1) - Limbic System...

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Unformatted text preview: Limbic System: Hypothalamus Limbic System: Hypothalamus Associated with the endocrine system Directly controls the pituitary Pleasure (reward) centers General sensation of pleasure Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex Involved in perception, thinking, language, movement 3 mm of grey matter 20­23 billion (of 40 billion) neurons Four main lobes, separated by prominent fissures Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital Motor Cortex Motor Cortex Motor Cortex Responsible for voluntary muscular movements Rear border of the frontal lobe Contralateral control No direct correspondence between the size of the muscle and the size of the area of cortex which controls it More cortical real estate means finer motor control Motor Homunculus Motor Homunculus Predicting Movement Predicting Movement 100 tiny electrodes Individual neurons Measure motor cortex activity that occurs right before a movement Computer program interprets neural signals Determines pattern that corresponds to particular movements Program can predict movement before it happens Video #1 Video #1 /n7198/suppinfo/nature06996.html Sensory Cortex Sensory Cortex Sensory Cortex Somatosensory cortex Responsible for sense of touch Front border of the parietal lobe Contralateral sensation No direct correspondence between the size of the sensory area and the size of the area of cortex which receives it’s sensory neurons More cortical real estate means greater sensitivity Sensory Homunculus Sensory Homunculus Other Sensory Areas Other Sensory Areas Visual Cortex Auditory Cortex Temporal lobe Olfactory Cortex Occipital lobe Temporal Lobe Gustatory Cortex Frontal Lobe Association Areas Association Areas Cognitive Functions Interpret, integrate new information or experiences Compare incoming information to memories Frontal lobes ­ judgment and planning Parietal lobes ­ mathematical and spatial reasoning Temporal lobes – facial recognition Neural Plasticity Neural Plasticity Brain’s ability to reorganize itself in the face of different environmental stimulation For example: Monkey fingers Stroke Visual or auditory impairment Loss of limb Constraint­induced therapy Phantom limb syndrome Hemispherectomy Video#2 Video#2 =TSu9HGnlMV0 Vining et al. (1997) Vining et al. (1997) review of the outcomes of the hemispherectomies that had been performed at John Hopkins Hospital from 1968 to 1996 (most from ’86 to ’95) 58 hemispherectomies Rasmussens’s syndrome (chronic brain inflamation, i.e., encephalitis) Cortical dysplasia, vascular problems (developmental abnormalities) All cases were having debilitating seizures Cognitive difficulties, motor difficulties Average age 6 Of the 54 surviving children: 54% were seizure free; 24%(non­handicapping seizures); 23% (residual seizures that somewhat interfered with normal functioning) But everyone said the burden of illness was diminished Improve motor ability Improve cognitive ability Language returns Memory is normal Personality, sense of humour are unchanged The younger the better Lateralization of Function Lateralization of Function Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Drawing, reading maps, spatial perception, face perception Corpus callosum connects the cortexes of two hemispheres Language, math problems Corresponding lobes connected Seizures disorder Sever this connection Split Brains Split Brains Disconnection between left and right hemisphere Split Brains Split Brains Disconnection between left and right hemisphere Video #2 Video #2 =ZMLzP1VCANo Exam Study Tips Exam Study Tips ...
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