FINAL SUTDY GUIDE

FINAL SUTDY GUIDE - 5/4/2010 NS 132 Final Review Study...

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5/4/2010 NS 132 Final Review Study Guide Terms to know (Recommended by TA): - Carcinogens : chemicals that damage DNA and lead to development of cancer. Found in chemicals or food - Epidemiological studies : a natural experiment that a population conducts on itself, probably without knowing they are doing so. ! In a large enough population exposure (the experimental factor the researcher is looking at) varies. ! Tries to answer the question “do differences in outcome correlate with exposure”? ! Cannot prove cause and effect; can only suggest correlations - Photosynthesis : 6 CO2 + 6 H20 + sunlight ! C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ! Produces carbohydrates - Lactose intolerance: lactase insufficiency, unable to digest and absorb specific carbs. Unabsorbed carbs pass into large intestine where bacteria digest it; produces acids and gases that irritate the lining of the intestines and cause bloating, diarrhea, cramping, and flatulence. ! Lactase production decreases after infancy, LI is common in Asians, Native Americans, African-Americans - Food Energy, TEE - Phytonutrients : non-nutrient component of plants with physiological effects on humans - Teratogens: agents that can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus; may cause birth defects- congenital anomaly; deviation from normal due to changes in genetic material ! Excessive retinol supplements, alcohol - Hyperplasia: growth in the number of cells - Hypertrophy: growth in the size of cells - Innate vs. Learned Behaviors
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5/4/2010 Scientific method - Anecdotal evidence is useful in generating questions that may lead to hypotheses - Types ! Epidemiological or observational studies: cannot prove cause & effect, correlation only, cannot control but easily generalizable ! Animal experiments : easy to control, not easily generalized to humans ! Human experiments : moderately difficult to control, but more generalizable (very expensive) - 5 steps: ask a question, formulate testable hypothesis, design/conduct experiment, evaluate results, confirm or reject hypothesis - Use randomization, have a placebo group, double-blind the participants & administraters, have a control & experimental group RDA, Food Guide Pyramid recommendations - RDAs set to meet the needs of 98% of the healthy population, % daily value is based on the RDA and a 2000 kcal diet - Grains 6-11, veggies 3-5, fruit 2-4, dairy 2-3, protein 2-3 - Fats sugars oils- sparingly ! Saturated fat- 10% of total calories, all fats 20-35% Features of ancient diets and ways of getting food vs. today - ! Diseases of poverty: nutritional deficiency, injury, infectious disease
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5/4/2010 ! Regionally-grown foods, minimal processing, one or two crops for staples ! Hunter gatherer: hunter, fisher, forager ! Agriculturalist: subsistence farmers, pastoralists - Modern diets: fat & refined sugar based, low fiber (lost thru processing) ! Diseases of affluence: nutritional excess, chronic disease PROTEIN - basic characteristics and make-up
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FINAL SUTDY GUIDE - 5/4/2010 NS 132 Final Review Study...

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