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Psych Study Guide 1 - Methods of Psychological Research...

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Methods of Psychological Research! 05:57 Scientific knowledge is gained through being systematic and controlled Thinking critically (sir francis bacon) Empiricism how we know what we know Empiricial process depends on theories, hypotheses, and research In order to get data, you have to operationally define Parsimony= keep it simple when trying to understand, and in developing theories Scientific Method: a set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence Four main goals of scientific method: describe(what), predict(when), cause( what causes), and explain(why) o Descriptive research: what occurs in environment(observe) Observing, asking(surveys), observing what we cannot ask directly, response performance measures stimulus processing, body and brain activity can be directly measured Case studies: careful descriptions based on repeated observations: Freud, Sacks, Clinical studies Naturalistic observation: ethnology researchers, “ecological validity” o Understanding natural culture and people, getting to see people in natural habitat o “under what circumstances will people help each other, Rio de Janeiro and Latin American cities Surveys: getting info from people in context of controlled questions Case studies: examine individual lives Sacks cases help understand neuropsychology An unquiet mind helps explore bipolar disorder Cannot always generalize Demand characteristics: those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they “should”
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Observer bias: expectations can influence observations and influence perceptions of reality o Correlation: how things correlate to one another(variables) o Hawthorne Case: looked at factories, wanted to see if changing lighting would effect productivity—but people worked harder when the boss was watching, lighting didn’t matter o Response performance measures reaction time, response accuracy, and stimulus judgements NOT RELYING ON SELF-REPORT- what they say isn’t always true Stroop test- colors and words (tests reaction time) What happens when there are two competing variables, mind has to think Able to measure brain activity directly Shows what part of the brain activiates during different activites o MRI: magnetic resonance imaging Provides very high quality images of intact human brains Static image (structural view of brain) o FMRI: look at what lights up during certain activities Allows us to see how people responde High psycho patients process disgusting things in language part of brain, while most people would feel it in the emotional part of the brain o IAT and prejudice clip: implicit association test (designed to measure things people won’t report—subconscious thought) Time is critical to finding results (pairing of target words) Career/male and family/female (reinforcing stereotype) Conscious beliefs are important Negative attitudes on IAT more likely to show activiated amygdala w/ unfamiliar black faces o Able to change attitude
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