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Unformatted text preview: Motivation and Emotions 22:08 Motivation: what keeps us going- what sustains us and keeps us active Needs, Drives, and arousal motivate behavior Motivation involves factors that energize, initiate, direct and sustain behavior needs are states of deficiency-produce states of arousal which drive behavior drives: are psychological states activated to satisfy needs negative feedback helps maintain homeostasis o when something is offbalance- we have to get back to normal Maslow: influential concept of a hierarchy of needs helped shape humanistic psychology Try to understand what each persons needs are, and try to figure out what need is not being met How to meet needs in a more effective way Basic needs must be met before secondary needs can be thought about Pyramid: physiological needs, safety needs, belonging and love, esteem(how we feel about ourselves), self-actualization(be all you can be) If you can meet basic needs at bottom of pyramid, then you have the ability to be all that you can be! Yerkes-Dodson Law: basic need is optimal level of arousal Hull proposed that specific aroused drive states increase in proportion to amount of deprivation Behaviors that consistenly reduce drives and arousal become habit Incentives are external motivators and are culturally determined Optimal level of stimulation is when the person is engaged, stimulated, aroused, challenged, but not overwhelmed or underwhelmed o Stimulation based on individual Some behaviors are motivated for their own sake Extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation: extrinsic is being motivated by an outside source(over justification) and intrinsic is being motivated by something inside yourself, that makes you feel good Curiosity, play, and exploratory drive Creativity and problem-solving Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation Control theory and self-perception o Control theory: want to feel in control of what we are doing- activity is more satisfying when in control o Self perception: step back and look at what youre doing- if there is an external reward involved there is a difference How we think about own motivation- extrinsic vs. intrinsic plays a role Humans have a fundamental need to belong The need to belong is a basic motive that drives behavior and influences cognition and emotion Not belonging increases risk for health problems, including emotional distress Social exclusion theory: people are looking for inclusion o Experiment: put people in conformity tasks, the one person that disagrees will have their autonomic nervous system activated o Need to feel included-physiological risk in push- we feel most comfortable when we conform People seek others when they are anxious Isolation produces anxiety, but anxiety motivates the desire for company Misery loves miserable company, not just company Social comparison theory: need to be compared to others...
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