Psych202 study guide 2 - Memory Four Models of memory Psych...

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Psych Study Guide 2 Memory Four Models of memory: Informational processing approach: memory is a process o Similar to a computer (encoding, storage, retrieval) able to come back later and edit, save and restore Parallel distributed processing model: memory distributed throughout brain Memory is distributed across a wide network of interconnected neurons located in various locations in brain When activated, the network works simultaneously (parallel manner) to process information In order to have vivid memories, many parts of the brain should light up Even w/ hippocampus damage we can still have long term memories from before it was damaged Levels of processing approach: Memory depends on the degree or depth of processing occurring Shallow processing leads to little memory Deeper processing and greater memory (able to more easily retrieve information) Three Stage Memory Model: Sensory Memory STM LTM Memory requires 3 stages Sensory memory holds very short period Short term memory (STM) retains 30 seconds or less (unless renewed) Long term memory (LTM) is relatively permanent Information goes from LTM to STM to be used Storage happens in environment that we turn attention to LTM= storage, things can happen in LTM that we are unable to receive Sacks study: woman had stroke in temporal lobe and had seizures and could hear childhood memories
The traditional model and the leading model in memory research This model offers convenient way to organize the major memory processes Sensory input sensory memory (unattended info is lost) short term memory (maintenance rehearsal, unrehearsed info is lost (encoding) long term memory (some information may be lost over time) Ability to retrieve information can change over time We only remember stimulation that enters our sensory memory processes if it: 1) receives attention in conscious experiencing of one or more sensory modalities 2) Is held and maintained in STM (working memory) 3) Is encoded and stored in LTM; and 4) can be retrieved from LTM with appropriate cues Sensory Memory: stores a brief copy (less than 3 seconds) of stimuli that register during sensory processing (product of transduction) Quick flashes of memory (sensations) Iconic memory: is a transduced/encoded visual snapshot or “icon” and lasts less than 1 second (snapshot) Echoic memory: seems to last for at least several seconds (auditory) Short Term Memory (STM): AKA working memory Three part working memory o Central executive: overseer of memory, decide what’s meaningful and what is to be stored in LTM o Visuospatial sketchpad: visually remembering where things are Ex. Waiting tables, and remembering where people are Phonological rehearsal loop: working on auditory story in LTM The “Working Memory” of STM STM requires attention and has limited capacity STM stores 7 +/-2 noticed items for up to 30 seconds (longer for “rote” or “maintenance” rehearsal
Chunking increases STM capacity; experts “chunk” bits of info as do successful learners at all levels Chunking

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