Chapter 5 - Social Judgment (1)

Chapter 5 - Social Judgment (1) - Chapter5 Social Judgment...

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Chapter 5 Social  Judgment Social Judgment
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The Information Available for Judgment
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The Information Available for Judgment Firsthand information Information based on personal experience or observation Secondhand information Information that comes from other sources, like gossip, news accounts, books, magazines, the Internet, and so on Judgments require information e.g. Is this stock going to do well? Is this person guilty? What movie should I see? Often, not all the information needed is present
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Limitation of Information Biases in firsthand information Pluralistic ignorance Memory biases Biases in secondhand information Sharpening and leveling
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Biases of Firsthand Information
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Biases in Firsthand Information What happens when you misinterpret the group norm? Pluralistic ignorance: when most people in a group privately reject a group norm, but nobody speaks out against it because they think everyone else accepts it. - leads to making the norm even stronger in the group
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Pluralistic Ignorance Example Examples: Difficult topics in class No one asks questions because everyone else is pretending they understand People want to ask a question, however they fear social consequences (people thinking they are dumb) so they act against it. You observe this behave and misperceive the norm as no one asks questions so you do ask a question either Now that no one is raising their hand, it reinforces the false perception that no one should ask questions
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Pluralistic Ignorance Example Popularity of drinking in colleges and universities Students believe drinking is more popular than it is If told the true norm, people will drink less Participating in discussions about the norm leads to 40% less drinking than participating in individual focuses discussions
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Memory Biases Memory is not a passive recorder (like a tape recorder or a video camera). It is actively constructed and involves forming inferences (like a detective rebuilding the scene of a crime). People don’t retrieve memories, they construct them Memories may be biased by inferences and show frequent errors too Expectations of what should have happened influence memories of what did happen
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Memory Biases: Examples of Memory Construction Errors Flashbulb memories http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evj6q0eCdd8 Vivid recollection of the moment one learned some dramatic, emotionally charged news Show frequent errors Self-help “successes” can be created by believing we were worse off before than we really were People who claim that they improved, might be overestimating the effectiveness of the program because they forgot how good they were beforehand Opposite: people missing the old days because they forgot how bad things were example
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Biases of Secondhand Information
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Biases in Secondhand Information 1) Sharpening and Leveling When telling stories, more important and interesting elements get
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2012 for the course BUS 375 taught by Professor Siri during the Spring '12 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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Chapter 5 - Social Judgment (1) - Chapter5 Social Judgment...

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