BIOL164Ch5NotesWin12

BIOL164Ch5NotesWin12 - Ch. 5 The Skeletal System Elements...

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1 Ch. 5 – The Skeletal System • Elements of the skeletal system : – The bones of the skeleton (~ 206 of them!) – The cartilages, ligaments, and other CTs that stabilize and connect the bones • Functions : – Physical/structural support Movement (by providing levers for muscles to pull on) Protection (of internal organs and soft tissues) Storage of minerals (mainly calcium and phosphorus) and fat/energy (in yellow marrow) Blood cell production (in red marrow) Parts of a typical long bone Diaphysis = the shaft Epiphyses = the ends Metaphysis = the union between the shaft and end – The metaphyhsis of growing bone contains the epiphyseal plate (which is a hyaline cartilage growth plate) Articular cartilage = the hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of the bones in joints – Function : reduces friction Periosteum = the dense CT that surrounds bone; it’s needed for bone growth, repair, and blood/nerve supply Internal bone cavities contain red marrow (in the spongy bone cavities) or yellow marrow (in the main central cavity of the shaft) Metaphysis Articular cartilage Epiphysis Epiphysis Diaphysis Figure 5.1
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Bone structure Compact bone : – Makes up the external layer of all bones and the shaft of long bones – Is for dense protection and support Spongy bone : – Makes up the middle of most bones and most of the ends of long bones – Is for lighter- weight support and red marrow storage Figure 5.1 Compact bone • Its basic repeating structural unit is the osteon Osteocytes live in hollow pockets called lacunae , which are arranged in concentric rings (called lamellae ) around a central canal – Lacunae are interconnected by tiny canals called canaliculi Perforating canals interconnect the central canals of adjacent osteons – Both types of canals contain N.A.V.a.L.
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2012 for the course BIOL 164 taught by Professor Tonychennault during the Winter '12 term at Clark College.

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BIOL164Ch5NotesWin12 - Ch. 5 The Skeletal System Elements...

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