BIOL164Ch7NotesWin12

BIOL164Ch7NotesWin12 - 1 Ch. 7 – Neurons: The Matter of...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Ch. 7 – Neurons: The Matter of the Mind • The nervous system : – Controls, integrates and coordinates the body’s activities – Provides rapid and brief responses to stimuli – Has 2 major divisions : • 1. The central nervous system (CNS) = the brain and spinal cord • 2. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) = nerves – Is made up of nervous tissue , which includes: • Neurons (nerve cells) – are excitable; they can generate and transmit electrochemical signals that carry information • Neuroglial (or glial) cells – support and protect neurons The anatomy of a typical neuron • The red arrows ( → ) indicate the direction of information (electrochemical signal or action potential or nerve impulse ) flow Figure 7.2 2 Neurons vs. nerves • Types of neurons : – 1. Sensory (afferent) neurons – carry info from sensory receptors toward the CNS – 2. Motor (efferent) neurons – carry info away from the CNS to an effector (= a muscle or gland) – 3. Interneurons (association neurons) – carry info within the CNS (between sensory and motor neurons) • Nerves = bundles of neuron processes (axons and/or dendrites) in the PNS – Nerves may be sensory , motor , or mixed (mixed nerves contain both sensory and motor neuron processes) CNS Figure 7.1 Some glial cells • Some glial cells of the CNS : – 1. Ependymal cells – help produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) – 2. Astrocytes – connect neurons to blood vessels; help form the blood-brain barrier – 3. Microglia = phagocytes that remove cell debris, wastes, and pathogens – 4. Oligodendrocytes – myelinate (= electrically insulate) axons in the CNS • Some glial cells of the PNS – 1. Schwann cells – myelinate (= electrically insulate) axons in the PNS (see the next slide) 3 Schwann cells and the myelin sheath • Functions : electrically insulates the axon; speeds up the conduction of the nerve impulse; protects the axon; aids in axon repair...
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2012 for the course BIOL 164 taught by Professor Tonychennault during the Winter '12 term at Clark College.

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BIOL164Ch7NotesWin12 - 1 Ch. 7 – Neurons: The Matter of...

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