BIOL164Ch14NotesWin12

BIOL164Ch14NotesWin12 - 1 Ch. 14 The Respiratory System...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Ch. 14 The Respiratory System General functions : 1. To provide a surface area for the exchange of O 2 and CO 2 between the air and blood 2. Breathing (ventilation) = moving air in and out of the lungs 3. Protection of respiratory surfaces E.g. from dehydration, extreme temperature changes, pathogens, etc. 4. Sound production for speaking, etc. 5. To provide a location for the sensation of smell (= olfaction) An overview of the respiratory system Figure 14.2 2 The nose and nasal cavity Nasal conchae Nose = the external portion (which is mostly made up of bone and cartilage) Nasal cavity = the internal portion Main functions : 1. Warm and moisten incoming air due to the noses rich blood supply and mucus production 2. Filter incoming air via nose hairs, mucus, and cilia (see the next slide) 3. Smell (olfaction) in the upper nasal cavity only (more details can be found in Ch. 9) Nasal conchae = ridges that stir up incoming air, and increase the surface area for warming, moistening, filtering, and smelling Figure 14.2 Respiratory epithelium = pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (PCCE) Is found lining the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi The cilia move mucus and trapped particles toward the pharynx for swallowing and destruction in the stomach Figure 14.4a 3 The pharynx (throat) = a common passage- way for air, food, and drink Has 3 regions : 1. Nasopharynx (respiratory only) Its lined by PCCE It contains the pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) and openings to the auditory (Eustachian) tubes (not shown in this picture) 2. Oropharynx (respiratory and digestive) Its lined by stratified squamous epithelium It contains the palatine and lingual tonsils (not shown in this picture) 3. Laryngopharynx (respiratory and digestive) Its lined by stratified squamous epithelium Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Figure 14.2 The larynx (voice box) Is composed mostly of several pieces of cartilage Main functions : 1. Allow air (but not food/drink) to pass from the pharynx to the trachea Epiglottis = an elastic cartilage plate that closes off the glottis (= the superior opening of the larynx) during swallowing 2. Voice production via the vocal cords (see the next 2 slides) Figure 14.5a 4...
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BIOL164Ch14NotesWin12 - 1 Ch. 14 The Respiratory System...

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