Exploring+Public+Speaking+4th.pdf - Exploring Public Speaking i Exploring Public Speaking The Open Educational Resource College Public Speaking Textbook

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Unformatted text preview: Exploring Public Speaking i Exploring Public Speaking: The Open Educational Resource College Public Speaking Textbook 4th Edition A Creative Commons Licensed Open Educational Resource for Introductory College Public Speaking Courses Exploring Public Speaking ii Primary Author and Editor: Dr. Barbara G. Tucker Contributors: Ms. Amy Burger Mr. Chad Daniel Mr. Jerry Drye Ms. Cathy Hunsicker Mr. Matthew LeHew Ms. Amy Mendes Consultants: Mr. Nick Carty Ms. Kim Correll Ms. Jackie Daniels Mr. Zach Drye (graphics) Dr. Clint Kinkead Dr. Sarah Min Dr. Tami Tomasello Dr. Marjorie Yambor In Memory of Dr. Kristin Barton, Originator of the Project and First Editor Textbook files available at For questions regarding this textbook, contact: Dr. Barbara G. Tucker Department of Communication Dalton State College 650 College Drive Dalton, GA 30720 Lorberbaum Liberal Arts 107B (706) 272-4411 [email protected] Exploring Public Speaking iii This text exists under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, and as such it may be used for non-commercial purposes. Any portion of this text may be altered or edited; however, author attribution is required, and if you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original. Portions of this text were adapted from a free, opensource textbook without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator(s) and licensee(s). The authors of Exploring Public Speaking request that you let them know if you plan to use all or a major part of this textbook as a primary text for your basic communication classes. Photographs are used by permission of the Office of Marketing and Communication at Dalton State College and are copyrighted 2019. Exploring Public Speaking iv Introduction to the Fourth Edition of Exploring Public Speaking Exploring Public Speaking: The Open Educational Resource College Public Speaking Textbook began as the brainchild of Dr. Kris Barton, former Chair of the Department of Communication at Dalton State College in Dalton, Georgia. It also was made possible through a generous Textbook Transformation Grant in 2015 from Affordable Learning Georgia, a highly successful program of the University System of Georgia. In applying for the original grant, Dr. Barton asked me to help him author/compile the text. The original goal of our creation of Exploring Pubic Speaking was to provide a high-quality, usable, accessible, and low-cost textbook for the hundreds of students who take COMM 1110 at Dalton State College every year. This course is required of all degree-seeking students. We have already been able to save hundreds of thousands of dollars for students at our institution with this text. Dr. Barton and I worked on creating the textbook from July 2015 until May 2016, with the goal of going live with the text in Summer of 2016. Tragically, Dr. Barton passed away in early May 2016. He has been greatly missed as a friend, colleague, father, scholar, teacher, and mentor. However, the launch of the book proceeded. In Summer 2017 I took on a significant revision and update, which I named the Second Edition. In that edition, I included information on college student success in the appendices for institutional reasons, and we have chosen to continue including those. In January 2018, colleague Matthew LeHew and I won a grant from the University System to create the ancillaries and improve the format for more accessibility. In April 2019, we were awarded another mini-grant to further revise the text and create a website for it. For this fourth edition, we have removed “Dalton State” from the title and examples for wider appeal. An appendix on library research retains the information for specific use of Roberts Library on our campus. We felt these changes were needed in the fourth edition because, unexpectedly and happily, the text has also been downloaded close to 40,000 times from the GALILEO site as of August 2019 by readers all over the world, is used on six continents, and has been adopted at many other institutions. These institutions include state universities, well-known private universities, community and technical colleges, liberal arts colleges, and dual enrollment programs. Faculty users are welcome to submit their information on the form at for access to the ancillaries. Exploring Public Speaking v Over 90% of the book is originally by Dr. Barton, me, or other colleagues at Dalton State College. Some parts, specifically from Chapters 9, 10, and 15, are adapted from another open resource public speaking text whose author prefers not to be cited. In Exploring Public Speaking, especially in its second through fourth editions, we have attempted to create a usable, zero-cost textbook for basic public speaking courses or courses that include basic public speaking skills as one of their primary learning outcomes. The free, open nature of the text means that instructors are able to use all or part of it, and add their own materials. We believe this text addresses all the subjects that traditional publishers’ books would address in an appropriate writing style and with appropriate college-level learning theory in mind. The appendices address some additional topics that might be excluded from most texts, but that we believe add to the experience: learning theory, plagiarism, speaking online, speaking to diverse audiences, and humor in public speaking. In the third and fourth editions we have added “case study” examples and some different outline samples. We think this book is especially useful in coverage of PowerPoint, audience analysis and responsiveness, ethics in public speaking, persuasion, special occasion speeches, and structure of speeches. Because it was written by communication professors with decades of experience in the classroom, we are aware of the needs of basic public speaking students. Three ancillaries are currently available: electronic “flash cards” for study, PowerPoint slide decks on the 15 main chapters, and test banks for the 15 main chapters. As the website is developed, it will include videos of student speeches. Two editorial notes: As per the American Collegiate Dictionary (2016), in most cases we use the pronoun “they” when the antecedent is an indefinite pronoun, whether singular or plural, to avoid the awkward he/she/him/ her/his/her combinations. Second, we admit to some redundancy in the textbook. Because it is an open educational resource, some users do not access the whole text. For clarity, sometimes a concept that is explained in a preceding chapter is re-explained. Thank you for downloading Exploring Public Speaking, and the co-authors and I truly wish you happy teaching and learning with it. We welcome input. If you choose to use it, let us know at [email protected]edu. We keep a database of those who contact us about the book so that we can contact you about the text. Sincerely, Barbara G. Tucker Exploring Public Speaking vi Authors and Contributors Amy Burger (Chapter 5, Appendix E and F) Amy Burger is a reference and instruction librarian at Dalton State College. She is also pursuing a master’s degree in English with a concentration in rhetoric and professional writing from the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. She lives in Northwest Georgia with her husband Ross and their pets. Chad Daniel (Chapter 11/Expert Advice on the Voice from an Acting Instructor) Chad has his Master of Fine Arts degree in Theatre from Southern Methodist University and over twenty years of teaching and professional experience. Chad has performed and directed in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas, Nashville, Austin; Lyon, France and London, England. He has spent three years studying Voice and Speech with some of the best teachers in the industry, and eight years teaching Voice at various institutions throughout the Southeast. Jerry Drye (Appendix D) Jerry Drye is a professional humorist, public speaker, and educator. His career has included work as a comedian, motivational humorist, broadcaster, conference and workshop leader, and educator. He is a gifted storyteller and award winning professor. He has been called the “…ultimate entertainer (Venable),” and “…the best combination of Humor and Humanity I have ever seen (Hawkins).” He earned the B.S. and M.S. degrees in Organizational Communication at Murray State University where he served as a graduate teaching assistant. He obtained the Ed.S. degree in Adult Education from the University of Georgia. His teaching career includes stops at Clemson University and Dalton State College. He has studied and practiced the craft of public address and the humor arts for many years. He is in high demand as a keynote speaker, workshop leader, and consultant. He teaches college classes in Humor Communication, Public Speaking, Human Communication, and Organizational Communication. He has performed in concert halls, corporate board rooms, educational institutions, and churches and faith-based organizations. His motto is “Laughter is not a luxury; it is a necessity.” Cathy Hunsicker (Appendix B, Parts 3, 4, 5, and 6) Prior to obtaining credits to teach communication courses, Ms. Hunsicker taught reading and study skills for thirty years. She developed courses in reading, study skills, and problem solving for academic institutions and businesses, such as Reading Area Community College, Alvernia College, and the Reading Eagle in Reading,PA; Dalton State College, Dalton, GA; various county associations and institutions in Berks County, PA; and Agere Systems (formerly AT&T) plants in Reading, Allentown, and Breiningsville, PA. Working with students with learning disabilities at the college level led to Ms. Hunsicker honing her repertoire of cognitive strategies and problem solving skills to assist all kinds of students, especially adults, in acquiring an enriched learning experience to further their education and/or seek promotion on the job. Exploring Public Speaking vii Amy Mendes (Appendix B, Part 7) Amy Mendes is a Lecturer in the Communication Department at Dalton State College. Her approach to teaching Public Speaking is very student centered. She believes that every individual has a story to tell if given the right tools, and cherishes the opportunity to help students find those tools. Ms. Mendes attended Berry College for her undergraduate degree in Communication, and earned a Master’s in Communication from Westchester University. She is currently working on her dissertation to complete a doctorate in Higher Education Administration. Amy is married to Dr. Vincent Mendes, and they have three lovely girls who eschew public speaking as much as possible. Matthew LeHew (Editor) As Assistant Professor at Dalton State College, Matthew LeHew teaches courses in public relations, integrated marketing communication, film studies, and video production. His research interests include various areas of media studies, especially examination of virtual communities for online games. He is currently writing his dissertation for the Ph.D. in Communication (Media and Society track) at Georgia State University. He lives in Marietta, Georgia with his wife, son, and two dogs. Barbara G. Tucker (Editor and Primary Author) As chair of the Department of Communication at Dalton State College, Dr. Tucker oversees programs in communication, general studies, music, theatre, and interdisciplinary studies. She is Professor of Communication and has worked in higher education for over 40 years. She lives in Ringgold, Georgia, with her husband; they have one son. She is a novelist and playwright. Her research areas are the basic course, open educational resources, historical perspectives on rhetoric, and gratitude. Her website is . Exploring Public Speaking i Table of Contents Introduction to Fourth Edition of Exploring Public Speaking............................................................ iv Chapter 1: The Basics of Public Speaking...............................................................................................1 1.1 – What is Public Speaking?....................................................................................................... 2 1.2 – Anxiety and Public Speaking................................................................................................. 4 1.3 - Understanding the Process of Public Speaking....................................................................10 1.4 – The Value of Public Speaking in Your Life...........................................................................15 1.5 – Getting Started in Public Speaking......................................................................................16 Chapter 2: Audience Analysis and Listening....................................................................................... 20 2.1 – The Importance of Audience Analysis.................................................................................21 2.2 – Demographic Characteristics...............................................................................................21 2.3 – Psychographic Characteristics............................................................................................30 2.4 – Contextual Factors of Audience Analysis........................................................................... 34 2.5 – Listening in Public Speaking Settings................................................................................ 37 Chapter 3: Ethics in Public Speaking................................................................................................... 44 3.1 – Sources of Ethical Stances on Communication and Public Speaking................................ 45 3.2 – Credibility and Ethics.......................................................................................................... 49 3.3 – Plagiarism............................................................................................................................ 52 Chapter 4: Developing Topics for Your Speech................................................................................... 62 4.1 – Getting Started with Your Topic and Purpose.................................................................... 63 4.2 – Formulating a Specific Purpose Statement........................................................................ 64 4.3 – Formulating a Central Idea Statement............................................................................... 70 4.4 – Problems to Avoid with Specific Purpose and Central Idea Statements........................... 73 Chapter 5: Researching Your Speeches............................................................................................... 78 5.1 – Research............................................................................................................................... 79 5.2 – Accessing Information Through a Library.........................................................................80 5.3 – Research on the Internet..................................................................................................... 83 5.4 – Conducting Your Own Research......................................................................................... 85 Exploring Public Speaking ii Chapter 6: Organizing and Outlining Your Speech............................................................................. 89 6.1 – Why We Need Organization in Speeches............................................................................90 6.2 – Patterns of Organization..................................................................................................... 92 6.3 – Connective Statements.......................................................................................................101 6.4 – Outlining............................................................................................................................105 Chapter 7: Supporting Your Speech Ideas......................................................................................... 109 7.1 – Why Supporting Materials are Needed..............................................................................110 7.2 – Types of Supporting Materials........................................................................................... 114 7.3 – Attention Factors and Supporting Material..................................................................... 128 Chapter 8: Introductions and Conclusions.........................................................................................134 8.1 – General Guidelines for Introductions and Conclusions....................................................135 8.2 – Structuring the Introduction.............................................................................................136 8.3 – Examples of Introductions................................................................................................147 8.4 – Structuring the Conclusion................................................................................................149 8.5 – Examples of Conclusions...................................................................................................155 Chapter 9: Presentation Aids in Speaking..........................................................................................156 9.1 – What Are Presentation Aids?.............................................................................................157 9.2 – Functions of Presentation Aids......................................................................................... 158 9.3 – Types of Presentation Aids................................................................................................166 9.4 – Using Presentation Slides..................................................................................................179 9.5 – Low-Tech Presentation Aids............................................................................................. 189 Chapter 10: Language..........................................................................................................................193 10.1 – What Language Is and Does.............................................................................................194 10.2 – Standards for Language in Public Speaking....................................................................197 10.3 – Developing Your Ability to Use Effective Language in Public Speaking........................ 207 Chapter 11: Delivery........................................................................................................................... 210 11.1 – The Importance of Delivery.............................................................................................. 211 11.2 – Methods of Speech Delivery.............................................................................................212 11.3 – Preparing For Your Delivery.............................................................................................215 Exploring Public Speaking iii 11.4 – Practicing Your Delivery...................................................................................................219 11.5 – What to Do When Delivering Your Speech..................................................................... 224 Chapter 12: Informative Speaking.....................................................................................................238 12.1 – What is an Informative Speech?...................................................................................... 239 12.2 – Types of Informative Speeches.......................................................................................240 12.3 – Guidelines for Selecting an Informative Speech Topic................................................... 244 12.4 – Guidelines for Preparing an Informative Speech....................................
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