10.EMP.notes.chp6.UtilitarApproach

10.EMP.notes.chp6.UtilitarApproach - out God from morals...

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Lecture Notes – Elements of Moral Philosophy Ch 6 – The Utilitarian Approach I. Lecture Ch 6 – Utilitarian Approach a. Revolution in Ethics i. History of movement 1. Porposed by Hume, formulated by Jeremy Bentham, conintued by JS Mill. 2. 18 th and 19 th century tons of uprisings a. result of scientific revolution b. French Revolution c. People thought differently about ethics out of all this. (why would this be the case) d. not about pleasing God any more- morality should be about happiness in a possible world. ii. Principle of utility 1. principle which approves or disa pproves of every action whatsoever- according to happiness it promotes or not. 2. Bentham is leader iii. JSMill 1. Greatest Happiness Principle – ultimate end with reference to and for sake of which all other things desirable- our own good or that of thers- = existence free of pain and as many enjoyments as possible. 2. read pg 93 3. Morality = doing what is best from that point of view. iv. Why was this radical? It was radical because for the first time it leaves
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Unformatted text preview: out God from morals.- Morality is no longer to be understood as faithfulness to divine code. b. Euthanasia i. Get in groups of 3 – come up with 2 alternatives for euthanasia. 1. in our society- intention of killing is always wrong. ii. Should we always be excused from pain iii. What would God say. iv. Do laws make the ethics or ethics make the laws? c. Animals i. Possibly not wrong to kill animals but what about being cruel to them. ii. Animals are not rational, cannot speak, and are not human and so their interests are outside the sphere of moral concern. 1. What is the most important thing from a Utilitarian perspective? (experience pain or pleasure) 2. Are humans and animals equally entitled to moral concern. 3. Are animals and humans really equals? a. We derive pleasures differently- we can enjoy math and the like. 4. What was the point of the experiment 5. slaughterhouse example....
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