030907_Review_Exam4 - Review Day The Last Day Topics for...

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Review Day The Last Day
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Topics for today Prenatal development Attachment Parenting Adulthood Personality Disorders Evaluating Psychotherapies
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Prenatal Development Teratogens: External agents that cause abnormal prenatal development Rubella: blindness, other nervous system deficits Stress hormones: correlated with premature births Syphilis: 25% chance of still birth HIV: 25% chance of contraction by baby if through birth canal Nicotine: Low birth-weight, respiratory problems
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Prenatal Development Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Group of abnormalities that results from prenatal exposure to alcohol Unclear how much alcohol (if any) is safe One incident of binge drinking while pregnant can lead to FAS
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Attachment Specific Attachment Phase: 7 to 9 months Proximity Maintenance Child prefers to stay close to mother (primary caregiver) Resists separations Secure base Child treats mother as a place to return to in case of danger The baby explores new spaces, but only feels comfortable doing so if she can return to mom Safe haven Mother is seen as a place to get comfort Child goes to her when upset
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Attachment Stranger anxiety Young children are wary of strangers, especially those that are powerful Peaks at about 8 to 10 months Separation anxiety Wary or fretful reaction that infants and toddlers display when separated from attachment figure. Peaks at about 14 to 18 months
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Assessing Attachment Mary Ainsworth: Strange Situation 12- to 18-month old babies 1. Experimenter introduces parent and baby to playroom and leaves 2. Parent sits while baby plays. 3. Stranger enters, sits, and talks to parent 4. Parent leaves, stranger offers comfort if the baby is upset. 5. Parent returns, greets baby, and offers comfort if baby is upset. Stranger leaves. 6. Parent leaves room. 7. Stranger enters and offers comfort 8. Parent returns, greets baby, offers comfort if necessary, and tries to interest baby in toys.
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Assessing Attachment In the strange situation, researchers particularly interested in: Exploratory activities Reactions to Strangers and Separations BEHAVIORS WHEN REUNITED WITH PARENT
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SECURE ATTACHMENT (65%) Infant explores while alone with mom Visibly upset by separations Often greets mother warmly when she returns and may seek physical contact AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT (20%) Show little distress when mom leaves Turn away from mom and continue to ignore them. Sociable with strangers
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030907_Review_Exam4 - Review Day The Last Day Topics for...

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