Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders...

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Chapter 14 – Psychological Disorders Vulnerability stress model: A degree of vulnerability for developing a psychological disorder, given sufficient stress. Abnormality: Three criteria – distress, dysfunction, deviance. Distress: People who are excessively anxious, depressed, dissatisfied, or seriously upset. Dysfunction: Behaviors that interfere with a person’s ability to work or to experience satisfying relationships with other people. Deviance: Violation of society’s norms. Abnormal Behavior: Behavior that is personally distressing, personally dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive. Reliability: A system that shows high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions. Validity: Diagnostic categories that should be accurate to capture the essential features of the various disorders. DSM: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. (DSM-IV-TR) Competency: A defendant’s state of mind at the time of a judicial hearing. Insanity: The presumed state of mind of the defendant at the time the crime was committed. Anxiety: The state of tension and apprehension that is a natural response to perceived threat. Anxiety Disorders: The frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them, and the anxiety interferes with daily life. Four Components of anxiety responses: 1.) Subjective-Emotional component, including feelings of tension and apprehension. (2.) A Cognitive component, including worrisome thoughts and a sense of inability to cope. (3.) Physiological responses, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tension, rapid breathing, nausea, dry mouth, diarrhea, and frequent urination. (4.) Behavioral responses, such as avoidance of certain situations and impaired task performance. Phobias: Strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations. Agoraphobia: A fear of open or public places from which escape would be difficult:
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Social Phobias: excessive fear of situations in which the person might be evaluated and possibly embarrassed: Specific phobia: Fear of dogs, snakes, spiders, airplanes, elevators, enclosed spaces, water, injections, or germs. Animal fears are common among women; Fear of heights is common among men. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A chronic (ongoing) state of diffuse, or free-floating, anxiety that is not attached to specific situations or objects. Panic Disorders: Occur suddenly and unpredictably, and they are much more intense. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Usually consists of two components; Cognitive and behavioral. Obsessions: Repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses that invade consciousness, are often abhorrent to the person, and are very difficult to dismiss or control. Compulsions: Repetitive behavioral responses that can be resisted only with great difficulty.
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Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders...

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