A New Dominant Logic / 1
Journal of Marketing
Vol. 68 (January 2004), 1–17
Evolving to a New Dominant Logic
Marketing inherited a model of exchange from economics, which had a dominant logic based on the exchange of
“goods,” which usually are manufactured output. The dominant logic focused on tangible resources, embedded
value, and transactions. Over the past several decades, new perspectives have emerged that have a revised logic
focused on intangible resources, the cocreation of value, and relationships. The authors believe that the new per-
spectives are converging to form a new dominant logic for marketing, one in which service provision rather than
goods is fundamental to economic exchange. The authors explore this evolving logic and the corresponding shift
in perspective for marketing scholars, marketing practitioners, and marketing educators.
Stephen L. Vargo is Visiting Professor of Marketing, Robert H. Smith
School of Business, University of Maryland (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
edu). Robert F. Lusch is Dean and Distinguished University Professor, M.J.
Neeley School of Business, Texas Christian University, and Professor of
Marketing (on leave), Eller College of Business and Public Administration,
University of Arizona (e-mail: email@example.com). The authors contributed
equally to this manuscript. The authors thank the anonymous
ers and Shelby Hunt, Gene Laczniak, Alan Malter, Fred Morgan, and
Matthew O’Brien for comments on various drafts of this manuscript.
he formal study of marketing focused at first on the
distribution and exchange of commodities and manu-
factured products and featured a foundation in eco-
nomics (Marshall 1927; Shaw 1912; Smith 1904). The first
marketing scholars directed their attention toward com-
modities exchange (Copeland 1920), the marketing institu-
tions that made goods available and arranged for possession
(Nystrom 1915; Weld 1916), and the functions that needed
to be performed to facilitate the exchange of goods through
marketing institutions (Cherington 1920; Weld 1917).
By the early 1950s, the functional school began to
morph into the marketing management school, which was
characterized by a decision-making approach to managing
the marketing functions and an overarching focus on the
customer (Drucker 1954; Levitt 1960; McKitterick 1957).
McCarthy (1960) and Kotler (1967) characterized marketing
as a decision-making activity directed at satisfying the cus-
tomer at a profit by targeting a market and then making opti-
mal decisions on the marketing mix, or the “4 P’s.” The fun-
damental foundation and the tie to the standard economic
model continued to be strong. The leading marketing man-
agement textbook in the 1970s (Kotler 1972, p. 42, empha-
sis in original) stated that “marketing management seeks to
determine the settings of the company’s
that will maximize the company’s objective(s) in
the light of the expected behavior of noncontrollable