Chapt.2 Life-Chemistry-Water

Chapt.2 Life-Chemistry-Water - Life, Life, Chemistry, and...

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Life, Chemistry, and Water BIO 2107K: BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES I CHAPTER 2
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This is biology. Why do we care about chemistry? All matter in the universe is composed of elements (That includes us!) All plants, animals, and other organisms are collections of atoms and molecules linked together by chemical bonds.
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Understanding chemistry in biological research 1989, Exxon-Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska Bioremediation : application of chemical and biological knowledge to decontaminate polluted environments
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• Living organisms are composed of matter Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass • Matter is composed of elements Elements cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means – 92 naturally-occurring elements – 15+ artificially-synthesized elements Chemistry in Biological Research
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Living organisms are composed of 25 key elements Four elements make up 96% of the weight of living organisms: x Carbon (C) x Hydrogen (H) x Oxygen (O) x Nitrogen (N) Seven elements make up the remaining 4%: x calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium Trace elements are those than compose <0.01% or less
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Elements combine to form molecules and compounds Sodium (Na) Chlorine (Cl) + Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Element Element Compound Oxygen (O) Oxygen (O) + Molecular Oxygen (O 2 ) Element Element Molecule
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x Electrons occupy more than 99.99% of the space; x Nucleus makes up more than 99.99% of the mass. Each element consists of one kind of atom x An atom is the smallest unit that retains the chemical and physical properties of an element. x All atoms consist of the same basic structure: an atomic nucleus , surrounded by one or more electrons.
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The atomic nucleus contains protons and neutrons Protons are positively charged (+); x The number of protons in the nucleus = atomic number x Smallest atom = hydrogen (atomic number of 1) x Largest naturally occurring atom = uranium (atomic number = 92) Neutrons are not charged; x
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2012 for the course BIOL 2107 taught by Professor J.louten during the Spring '10 term at SPSU.

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Chapt.2 Life-Chemistry-Water - Life, Life, Chemistry, and...

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