Chapt.3 Biological Molecules

Chapt.3 Biological Molecules - Biological Molecules (The...

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Biological Molecules (The building blocks of life) BIO 2107K: BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES I CHAPTER 3
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Biological Molecules x Carbon The 4 classes of biological molecules: x Carbohydrates x Lipids x Proteins x Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA)
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Carbon plays a central role in life Carbon atoms readily share electrons b covalent x Carbon chains and rings form the backbones of all biological molecules x Molecules based on carbon are known as organic molecules x Molecules without carbon atoms are inorganic molecules (minerals and gases (like CO 2 ) are an exception!)
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Carbon indicates organic molecules x Carbon can form bonds with other carbon molecules x Carbon also binds to x Hydrogen x Oxygen x Nitrogen x Molecules consisting of carbon bound ONLY to hydrogen are called hydrocarbons
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Hydrocarbons: made of Carbon and Hydrogen x Molecules of carbon linked only to hydrogens x Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon (CH 4 )
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Hydrocarbons: made of Carbon and Hydrogen
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linear chains Hydrocarbons: made of Carbon and Hydrogen
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branched chains Hydrocarbons: made of Carbon and Hydrogen
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hydrocarbon rings Hydrocarbons: made of Carbon and Hydrogen
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Hydrocarbon rings carbon ring
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Hydrocarbons: single, double, triple bonds
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Hydrocarbons: single, double, triple bonds
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There’s almost no limit to the number of different hydrocarbon structures that can form. Other elements, like Oxygen, Nitrogen, or Sulfur, bind to these hydrocarbon structures to form the 4 major classes of organic molecules:
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CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS PROTEINS NUCLEIC ACIDS
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Carbohydrates x Most abundant biological molecules x Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen – Usually 1 carbon:2 hydrogens:1 oxygen x Important as fuel sources and for energy storage – Glucose, sucrose, starch, glycogen x Important as structural molecules – Cellulose, chitin
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Carbohydrates x Monosaccharides are the smallest carbohydrate molecules x Two monosaccharides link together to form a disaccharide x Monosaccharides link in longer chains to form polysaccharides Carbon:Hydrogen:Oxygen 1:2:1
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Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are the smallest carbohydrates x Mono = one; saccharum = sugar x Usually contain 3 – 7 carbon atoms x Water-soluble and sweet
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Three common monosaccharides Mannose (6 carbons) Glyceraldehyde (3 carbons) Ribose (5 carbons)
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Monosaccharides with 5+ C can form rings Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6
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Monosaccharides combine to form disaccharides Glucose Glucose Maltose
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Monosaccharides combine to form disaccharides Glucose+Glucose = Maltose Glucose+Fructose = Sucrose Glucose+Galactose = Lactose Glycosidic Bond
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Chains with more than 10 monosaccharides are called polysaccharides Many Monosaccharides Polysaccharide x Linear (Unbranched) x Branched
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Polysaccharides x Large carbohydrates formed by the joining of many monosaccharide subunits ( monomers ) x
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Chapt.3 Biological Molecules - Biological Molecules (The...

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