Chapt.5 The Cell

Chapt.5 The Cell - The Cell: An Overview BIO 2107K:...

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BIO 2107K: BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES I The Cell: An Overview
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Robert Hooke, early 1600s
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Thin sections of bark from a cork oak tree Tiny compartments = cellulae (Latin for “small rooms”)
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Anton van Leeuwenhoek, mid-1600s many very little animacules, very prettily a-moving
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Theodor Schwann, 1839 All living things are composed of cells and cell products!
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Rudolf Virchow, 1858 Omnis cellula e cellula: Every living cell comes from another living cell (This makes me quite happy, as you can see!)
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CELL THEORY 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the smallest unit that has the properties of life. 3. Cells arise only from the growth and division of pre-existing cells.
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Cells x Cells contain organized molecules and genetic material x Cells use organic fuels for energy x Some are unicellular (bacteria, archaea, and most protoctista) x Multicellular organisms, both plants and animals, have specialized cells that perform specific functions x Viruses consist only of a nucleic acid molecule surrounded by a protein coat and cannot carry out all the activities of life
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Plant cells Bacterium Protozoan Algae Animal cells
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Cells are small x Humans cannot see objects smaller than 0.1mm x Cells must be viewed with a microscope x Light microscope x Electron microscope x Magnification and resolution limit microscopes
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Magnification
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Resolution
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Microscopes x Light microscopes use glass lenses, and a beam of light to illuminate the specimen x Electron microscopes use a beam of electrons to illuminate the specimen and uses magnetic fields to form a magnified image
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Light Electron
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Characteristics of All Cells Central region with DNA: x Stores hereditary information x Genes are located on DNA x Proteins replicate DNA and copy info to RNA Cytoplasm surrounding the central region: x Cytosol : aqueous solution (liquid) x Organelles : small functional structures Plasma membrane (or cell membrane ) x Surrounds the cell x Phospholipid bilayer
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Cells occur in prokaryotic and eukaryotic forms Prokaryotes (“before nucleus”) x No boundary membrane in central region x Central DNA region is called the Nucleoid x Domains: Archaea and Bacteria Eukaryotes (“true nucleus”) x Boundary membrane in central region: True nucleus x Domain: Eukarya
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Plasma membrane Central Region With DNA (Nucleoid) Cytoplasm Prokaryotic cell structure
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Bacterial flagellum Pili Plasma membrane Cell wall Capsule Nucleoid Cytoplasm Ribosomes Prokaryotic cell structure
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Chapt.5 The Cell - The Cell: An Overview BIO 2107K:...

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