CHAPTER_11studykey - CHAPTER 11 FOCUS QUESTIONS Development...

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CHAPTER 11 FOCUS QUESTIONS: Development Over the Life Span 3, 5, 10, 11, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24 FQ 3: Describe the newborn’s (sensory capabilities, perceptual preferences –see lecture notes), reflexes (see lecture notes for more information), and ability to learn : Infants are not helpless and passive rather they are surprisingly sophisticated information processors A. Define Reflexes : automatic inborn behaviors that occur in response to specific stimuli Describe: the rooting reflex : stroke cheek and hear turns in that direction and opens mouth the sucking reflex : something is placed in the infants mouth, will suck on it Why do they have these reflexes? Increase ability to feed What does having them indicate? Normal neurological maturity at birth B. Learning: how do infants learn? Habituation : habituate to (learn to ignore) repetitive, nonthreatening S Classically conditioned responses (example): tone (CS) puff of air (UCS) develop a conditioned eyeblink R to tone alone Operant conditioned response : 3-day olds learn to suck in a way that triggers recording of mother’s voice FQ 5: Discuss Piaget’s concepts of assimilation and accommodation and his four stage model,(cut: and findings that help us evaluate his theory). A. Define Assimilation: process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas B. Define Accomodation: the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change (disequilibrium or imbalance change of schema; modify thinking) C. 4 Stage Model (Table 11.1 is a helpful summary) 1) Sensorimotor stage : world is perceived via sensory perceptions and physical interactions with environment Age range: birth to 2 Object permanence object continues to exist even when no longer can see At what age does this start? 8 months 2) Preoperational Stage : world is represented symbolically using words and images but there is no understanding of mental operations or rules Age range: starts at around 2 years of age
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Principal of Conservation : basic properties of objects (volume, mass, quantity) stay the same even when appearance changes Is this understood by a child in the preoperational stage? No Egocentrism : difficulty in viewing the world from someone else’s perspective Is this characteristic of children at this stage? Yes Reversibility : cannot reverse an action mentally (pour the liquid back – what did it look like before) Centration : focusing on only one aspect of a situation (the height of the liquid, not width also) Animism : attributing lifelike qualities to inanimate objects, natural events 3) Concrete Operational Stage : can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible objects and situations (rigid thinking bound by reality, not abstract) Age range: 7-12 Reversibility: now grasp this concept Centration: display this less 4) Formal Operational Stage : can think logically and systematically about both concrete and abstract problems, form hypotheses and test Age Ranges:
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CHAPTER_11studykey - CHAPTER 11 FOCUS QUESTIONS Development...

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