BIMM 120 Lecture18.Symbioses.053111

BIMM 120 Lecture18.Symbioses.053111 - BIMM 120...

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Unformatted text preview: BIMM 120 Announcements BIMM 120 Announcements We will discuss Paper #3 (Hehemann et al. ) at the end of class today. ...treasures in the human gut! Please slap your Homework #2 down on the front desk TODAY! REJOICE - TODAY IS THE LAST FORMAL LECTURE !! ...sweet... ...sweet... Lecture 17 Metagenomics The power & promise of cultivation-independent DNA sequencing in situ phase ex vivo phase in silico phase Metagenomics Metagenomics in action in action Why extreme environments represent highly Why extreme environments represent highly tractable systems for tractable systems for metagenomic metagenomic exploration exploration extreme environments Why Why extremophiles extremophiles ? ? Ocean Water = ~ 1 million cells per ml (12 ounces = 353 ml) Soil = ~ 10 million cells per gram a soda can of sea water contains >350 million bacteria ~ 400 different species ~ 3,000 different species Such environments are very diverse... Such environments are very diverse... They represent moderate ( They represent moderate ( gentle gentle ) habitats ) habitats where many types of microbes can thrive where many types of microbes can thrive Human gut = 1 quadrillion (10 15 ) cells [a million billion] ~ 10,000 different species In contrast... In contrast... Extreme environments have very low diversity because Extreme environments have very low diversity because their extremity precludes average microbes from surviving their extremity precludes average microbes from surviving ~ ~ ~ Most extreme environment have very few species !! Most extreme environment have very few species !! To survive in such environments, To survive in such environments, extremophilic extremophilic microorganisms require a multitude of biochemical microorganisms require a multitude of biochemical and physiological adaptations and physiological adaptations How long would your average organism last in boiling water or submerged in battery acid? Extremophiles Extremophiles Alkaliphiles Alkaliphiles pH 12 Halophiles Halophiles 32 % salt Acidophiles Acidophiles pH 0 pH salinity Thermophiles Thermophiles 113C Psychrophiles Psychrophiles-10C Piezophiles Piezophiles temperature pressure 1000 atm Genome sequence information reveals the genetic and metabolic potential of an organism A G A T G C A T G C G AA T G C G A T A G C T A G A T G CC GG T G C G AAA T A G C T A A G A T G C A T G C G AA T G C G A T A G C T A G A T G CC GG T G C G AAA T A G C T A A G A T G C A T G C G AA T G C G A T A G C T A G A T G CC GG T G C G AAA T A G C T A Reconstruct metabolism/physiology of each organism based on genome sequence the analysis of species populations and their interactions, recognizing that both species composition and interactions change over time and in response to environmental stimuli species B species A species E species C species D Community Genome Community Genomics Community Genomics Genome sequence information reveals the genetic and metabolic potential...
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BIMM 120 Lecture18.Symbioses.053111 - BIMM 120...

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