BIMM 120 Lecture19.FinalReview.060211

BIMM 120 Lecture19.FinalReview.060211 - BIMM 120...

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Unformatted text preview: BIMM 120 Announcements BIMM 120 Announcements Format of the FINAL EXAM: 15 True/False Questions (2 pts each) 50 Multiple Choice Questions (3 pts each) 5 Multiple Choice Questions (4 pts each) 200 pts Scantrons will be provided BRING A No. 2 PENCIL and your rockin brains ...for the last time... ...for the last time... Lecture 18 Symbioses Animal:Microbe Symbioses- Rumen- Riftia chemolithotrophs- Squid:Vibrio Plant:Microbe Symbioses-Legume:Rhizobia root nodules Human:Microbe Human:Microbe Commensalism Commensalism Paper #3 Paper #3 Microbial Interactions Microbial Interactions with with Humans Humans Flora of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract Flora of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract Major bacteria present Organ Physiological processes Gut microbiome samples! Anoxic ~ 1 x 10 12 cells/ml luminal contents highest concentration of microbes of any ecosystem! ~ 10 13 10 14 cells in the human GI tract 10-fold more microbial cells than human cells Only 2 phyla dominate (Bacteriodetes & Firmicutes) but representative from 8 other phyla have been identified Diet & genetics play a large role in the guts community composition Human Gut Human Gut Microbiome Microbiome Several disease conditions linked to aberrant community composition Crohns disease, inflammatory bowel syndromes, certain cancers Major international initiatives underway to sequence the human gut microbiome using metagenomics plus the genomes of 1000+ cultured representatives: Human Human Microbiome Microbiome Project Project Paper #3 Paper #3 Marine bacteria consume algal sugars Porphyra algae used as nori Marine genes transferred to human gut microbes Marine red algae of the genus Porphyra Contain sulfated polysaccharides in their cell walls such as agarose, carrageenan and porphyran Important nutritional seaweed in many cultures ( e.g. nori) These sugars are difficult to breakdown but can serve as a great source of carbon and energy if you have the right enzymes.... Zobellia galactanivorans (marine bacterium of the phylum Bacteriodetes) Copious producer of CAZymes carbohydrate active enzymes involved in the degradation of complex polysaccharides Genome analysis identified the first porphyranases from a marine Bacteroidete in addition to other CAZymes Goal of this study : Identify novel bacterial gene products (enzymes) involved in the degradation of algal biomass Recall that the Bacteroidetes dominate the human gut! they are famous for their production of CAZymes Analysis of Zobellia CAZymes Purified enzymes PorA and PorB from Zobellia specifically degraded Porphyra extracts (66% porphyran, 33% agarose) AgaA, an agarase from Zobellia , cannot degrade porphyrans Conclusion : Zobellia galactanivorans is an algae eating machine! Shared CAZyme genes among marine Bacteriodetes and human gut Bacteroidetes Gut species isolated from Japanese individuals Z. galactanivorans Z. galactanivoransZ....
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2012 for the course BIMM 120 taught by Professor Larsen during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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BIMM 120 Lecture19.FinalReview.060211 - BIMM 120...

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