BIPN102 M2 FA05 FA06 SP06 FA07 SP07

BIPN102 M2 FA05 FA06 SP06 FA07 SP07 - ,- BIPN 102,...

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Unformatted text preview: ,- BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: Spring, 2007, 2nd Midterm Exam. . UC ID #: May 24, 2007 Page 1 1. ( 14 points). List the name and location of the following structures that regulate respiration: Neurons that stimulate the motoneurons during tidal respiration: Neurons that stimulate the motoneufbns during a forced expiration: Neurons that when damaged result in deeper and prolonged inspirations: Neurons that when stimulated result in deep and prolonged inspirations: '1 he name or the nerve that innervates the diaphragm and location of its motoneurons: The' sensors that respond to a decrease of the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid: The sensors that resound to a decrease of the P02: 2. (12 points). The part of the nephron that reabsorbs most of the filtered HCO3 and secretes most of the H+ during normal physiological function is the , . In the above structure, the transporter that reabsorbs bicarbonate is (give the ions and correct stoichiometries): which is located in the membrane, and the transoorter that secretes H+ is the : , which is located in the membrane. The part of the nephron that is mainly involved in pH regulation during acid/base imbalance is: U 3. (4 points). Write the HendersonoHasselbach equation and calculate the pH when PC02=80 mmHg and [HCO3] = 48 mM: I BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: K Spring, 2007, 2nd Midterm Exam , UC ID #: May 24, 2007 Page 2 4. (28 points), Label the axes with the proper units where applicable and the Pcoz curves with correct values and units in the graph below. 40 35 3o 25 -- 20 15' 10 -- , . . . 6.80 7.00 7.20 7.40 7.60 7.80 3.00 For each of the points labeled A-E, indicate the type of acid/base imbalance (or normal), a possible cause of the imbalance, and the type of compensation you expect (eg. renal, T H+ secretion) and draw an arrow on the graph showing the path of the compensation. Imbalance». BMW, Typanfmomgonsammi. I BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology II Name: 2 Spring, 2007, 2nd Midterm Exam. , UC ID #: May 24, 2007 Page 3 5. (18 points). Fill in the missing portions of the chart regarding the Gastro-intestinal Reflexes: Stimulus Reflex _ Effect Function t Empty contents of small intestine into colon ___fi__'._e Mass movements >————-——fl—-‘_—~———“‘-‘f——“~T‘—‘-—.———_~—T—fi Distension of the ileum l 6. (10 points). Draw a diagram of the secretions of a stomach parietal cell indicating the transporters, channels, and enzyme reactions with their substrates in the correct membrane locations 7. (24 points). A. Parietal cell secretion is stimulated by three differents receptors. List the three receptors, their ligands, and the cells that release the ligands that activate the receptors. Receptor: Li stand: Source of ligand: I 2 BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: {(6 2 Spring, 2007, 2nd Midterm Exam. _ UC ID #2 May 24, 2007 Page 4 B. List 3 hormones that inhibit parietal cell secretion, their source, and the stimuli for their secretion. Hormone: , Source: _ , _ Stimuli: A , 8. (12 points). A patient developed anemia and steatorrhea after surgery that removed his ileum. Briefly explain the mechanism of these abnormalities. Will he also develop jaundice? If yes, why, if no, why not? ' Anemia: Steatorrhea. .l aundice? 9. (10 points). List the transporters that are involved in the absorption of single aminoacids across the brush border epithelium and their membrane locations. What would happen to aminoacid absorption if the Na/K pumps were inhibited? Why? 10. (12 points). List 3 hormones or peptides that increase appetite and 3 that inhibit appetite and the cells that secrete them: BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: I ? Spring, 2007, 2nd Midterm Exam. _ UC ID #2 May 24, 2007 Page 5 ll. (24 points). The following enzymes are stimulated by glucagon or by insulin. Write the reaction they catalyze and indicate whether they are stimulated by glucagon or by insulin: Enzyme (in liver or adipocytes): Reaction: Stimulated by: Adenylyl cyclase Protein Kinase A lTyrosine kinase Hormone-sensitive lipase Hexokinase Glucose-6-phosphatase Glycogen Synthase Glycogen Phosphorylase I2. (12 points). Hero or killer? You meet a group of young hikers during a hike in the woods. One, a type 1 diabetic is very sick, on the verge of losing consciousness. In his backpack you find a syringe and insulin. Is he falling into a diabetic coma, or overdosed the insulin and is in severe hypoglycemia? You may give him insulin or some fruit juice. How do you decide which? The wrong choice may kill him. the right choice will save him. BIPN 102, Mammalian PhysiologyII Name: ANSWER Kéx Spring, 2006, 2nd Midterm Exam. . UC 1D #: May 24, 2006 Page 1 1. (20 points). For the following arterial blood data from patients, state whether the pH is normal, high, or low; propose a diagnosis and possible cause of the imbalance (if there is one); predict whether the plasma potassium concentration will be normal, high, or low; and state whether the patient is normally ventilating, hypoventilating, or hyperventilating _-E- '2. (16 points). For patient #4 above, answer the following questions. A. Which resniratorv chemorecentors were stimulated and which were inhibited (indicate whv)? B. Diagram the transport systems in the distal nephron cell that will be involved in compensation in this patient. ’ ' d4 {(6}: BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: 9169 Spring, 2006, 2nd Midterm Exam. , UC ID #2 May 24, 2006 Page 2 3. (15 points). Slow waves originate in (name of cells). The neurotransmitter has an inhibitory effect on slow waves by acting at "—'—r—_ “ receptors, which the permeability of . The neurotransmitter 7 7 has an excitatory effect by acting at the mum—mm. ——fi— c receptor, which increases the permeability of . Slow waves can cause motility in the GI tract. The hormone stimulates 7 (WPe of motility) during fasting. Forward movement in the small intestine is accomplished by , whereas 1— in the large intestine it is called '. Mixing in the small intestine is called whereas in the colon it is called fi—J 4k(18 points). A. List the functions of the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa: B. List 4 different types of receptors in parietal cells, the ligands of these receptors (which hormone, neurotransmitter, or paraerine), the source of each of these ligands, and the effect of the ligand on the parietal cell function (increase or decrease): Receptor: Ligand: Ligand source: _ Effect of ligand: 5. (18 points). a) It’s almost summertime, so in order to get your body in swimsuit shape, you decide to go on a diet. Your friend suggests that you try the anti-Atkins diet and consume nothing but carbohydrates. While chewing on your lunch, i.e. bread, what enzyme is being secreted to digest it? What glands secrete it? b) Afler the bolus of bread enters your stomach, you suddenly feefthe urge to go to the bathroom. Name of the reflex_that causes this. Wlhat is the; and what is‘the effect? I c) When your lunch reaches your intestine, it is further digested by and by disaccharidases. Name the 3 different disaccharidases and thgproducts of the fifions they catalyze. ’ BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology H Spring, 2006, 2nd Midterm Exam. May 24, 2006 Name: K UCID#: Page3 d) Now that your lunch has been properly digested, it needs to be absorbed. Name the two transporters that are responsible for glucose transport into and out of the epithelial cell. e) To lose weight you want to reduce your daily calorie intake from 2,000 to 1,600 kcal. What weight of carbohydrates should you eat for your diet? What would be the caloric value if instead you ate the same weight of fats? 6. (14 points). Describe how cholera toxin leads to diarrhea by using a schematic diagram of the colonic crypt cells. Be sure to include all membrane transport proteins and include the pathways and , direction of_ion and water niovementa 7. (12 points). Match the following types of peptic ulcers with the possible agents responsible in column 1. Then match each cause with a possible treatment fi'om column 2. There may be more than one answer for each column; answers may be used more than once, or not at all. COLUMN 1 COLUMN 2 A. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome 1. Antibiotics B. Chronic aspirin or NSAID use 2. H+ pump inhibitors C. H. pylori 3. atropine D.None of the above 4. cimetidine or ranitidine 5. None of the above CAUSE TREATMENT Ulcers caused by excessive acid secretion. Most common cause of ulcers. 77m Iatrogenic (e. g, caused by medical treatment) cause of ulcers. —/ __'_.,..,_ .a BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: All 5146 K6 Spring, 2006, 2nd Midterm Exam. _ UC ID #: May 24, 2006 Page 4 8. (12 points). A middle-aged woman developed an intestinal obstruction that was treated by surgically removing her terminal ileum. Afier recovering from the surgery, she developed pernicious anemia and steatorrhea, without jaundice. List which compounds are not being absorbed by the missing terminal ileum, their absorption mechanisms, and explain why she developed these symptoms. 9. (18 points). Match each hormone below with its effect (NOT stimulus for release) and what organ/cell is responsible for its secretion. Note: answers may be used more than once, or not at all. a i gastric motility and T HCO3- secretion b. T parietal cell activity and t gastric motility c. T zymogen secretion d. T insulin secretion e. 4' activity of ECL cells, G cells, and parietal cells f. T bile secretion and Jr gastric motility g. ~L appetite 1. G cells in the stomach 2. [3 cells in the pancreas 3. acinar cells in the pancreas 4. D cells in the stomach 5. endocrine cells in the duodenum 6. ECL cells in the stomach 7. adipocytes 8. hypothalamus EFFECT: ORIGINATES: CCK Leptin Somatostatin Secretin Gastrin Insulin GIP __’__.— BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: ANSWER KEY Fall, 2007, 2nd Midterm Exam. , UC ID #: November 18, 2007 Page 1 1. (12 points). List the four different types of respiratory chemoreceptors by their specific location and the specific change(s) that stimulate(s) each chemoreceptor. Specific Location(s): Stimulus or stimuli: A: Carotid & aortic bodies 1 Pa02 B: Carotid & aortic bodies T PaCOz C: Carotid & aortic bodies t arterial pH D: Medulla oblongata T PaCOz via ,1 pH in CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) 2. (10 points). The graph below show the ventilatory responses of normal subjects breathing gas mixtures that change the PAOZ . In the curve with filled circles, C02 was included in the mixture to maintain a normal PaCOz. In the curve with triangles no C02 was added to the breathing mixture and the numbers indicate the actual PaCOzi 60 50 b. O Paccz2 .-= 42.6 :1: 0.8 Ventilation (L/min) 0) O N 0 1O 20 4O 60 80 1 OO 1 20 1 4O Alveolar P02 (mm Hg) A: Which chemoreceptors were responsible for the increased ventilation in both curves? Why? B: Explain why the triangle curve is lower than the circle curve in terms of chemoreceptor activity. BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: ANSWER KEY Fall, 2007, 2nd Midterm Exam. 7 UC LD #: November 18, 2007 Page 2 3. (12 points). To determine which parts of the central nervous system are responsible for control of respiration, the physician Paeeon for gladiators in the Greek city of Pergarnon decided to cut the neuraxis of rats at different levels and observed changes in breathing. A. Cut between the medulla and cervical spinal cord B. Cut between the pons and medulla C. Cut the phrenic nerves D. Cut the vagus nerves to the lungs E. Cut just below the pneumotaxic center F. Cut just above the pons Match the above with the following observed breathing patterns: __ RAT 1: Normal rhythm, but depths are irregular. _ RAT 2: Normal rhythm, but breaths are long and very deep. _ RAT 3: Normal rhythm and duration, but breaths are deep. __ RAT 4: Normal rhythm, duration, and depth. __ RAT 5: Normal rhythm, shallow depth. _ RAT 6: No breathing. 4. (18 points). The graph shows curves calculated with the Henderson-Hasselbach equation for Paco: = 20, 30, 40, and 60 mm Hg. 40 "cos (mM) M (II 15 10 6.80 7.00 7.20 7.40 7.60 7.80 8.00 pH (i). Label the top of each curve with the corresponding PCOZ value (all must be correct to get points). (ii) Draw a point and label it A, corresponding to the normal value of arterial blood. For the following, draw the path, with an arrow indicating direction, of the changes you expect: (iii) An acute overdose of barbiturates, alcohol, or heroin, before compensation. Label it B. (iv) Physiological compensation of the above. Label it C. (v) An acute overdose of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). Label it D. BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: ANSWER KEY Fall, 2007, 2nd Midterm Exam. . UC ID #: November 18, 2007 Page 3 (vi) Physiological compensation of the above. Label it E. (vii) Mountain climber at an altitude of 18,000 feet,, before compensation. Label it F. (viii) Physiological compensation of the above. Label it G. (ix) An acute overdose of absorbable antacids. Label it H. 5. (14 points). A. What part of the nephron is involved in regulation of the abnormalities in the above patients? B. Indicate which of the above patient(s) may develop hyperkalemia and the name and membrane location (luminal or basolateral) of the transporter responsible in the nephron cells: C. What would you conclude from a lab report of the following arterial blood data? Paco; = 27 mm Hg, [HCO'3] = 27 mM, pH = 7.24. Why? 6. (20 points). Draw the cell that secretes acid in the stomach indicating: A: The transport systems and chemical reactions involved, in the proper membrane locations and the ions and directions of transport. B: Three different receptors that stimulate acid secretion when their respective ligand is bound. 7. (10 points). Describe the mechanism by which H. pylori, the most common cause of peptic ulcers, protects itself from stomach acid, and a test using a radioactively-labelled compound that is diagnostic of H. pylori infection. Include the chemical reactions, enzyme and products, and how it is detected. w 98 Name: ANSWER KEY BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 UC ID #1 Fall, 2007, 2nd Midterm Exam. November 18, 2007 Page 4 8. (16 points). Motility in the Digestive System: Fill in the blanks. _ is the main type of motility in the esophagus. This type of motility causes a ’_ movement. _ M motility is responsible for mixing of chyme in the stomach and small intestine. _ ’___ is responsible for mixing in the colon. _ are initiated by _ ._, which are a type of pacemaker cells that generate slow depolarizations, which have the highest frequency in the '_ and lowest frequency in the _ _. Contraction occurs only when the depolarization reaches threshold, which generates action potentials caused by opening of _ channels. The strength of contraction increases when the frequency of _ increases. ParaSympathetic stimulation is _ in the GI tract. '__ whereas sympathetic stimulation is _ are caused by secretion of _ '__ every 90-120 min. during _ periods. in the colon move the contents of large segments towards the rectum. 9. (20 pts) Fill in the table of digestive hormones below. Name of Secreted Stimulated by Action(s) Hormone SE CRE T IN List two actions here: CCK fatty acids in List three actions here: Cholecystokinln duodenum SOMA TOSTA TIN Low pH in stomach A MOTILIN Fasting Name: __ANSWER KEY BIPN 102, Mammalian physiology [1 Name: A 15/9 -5 3 Fall, 2006, 2nd Midterm Exam, - UC ID #: November 16, 2006 . Page I l. (25 points). A helicopter rescue team that resides at sea level in Alaska flies to Mount Denali to pick up an injured mountain climber who broke his leg at an altitude of 18,000 it. A. List the responses of each of their respiratory chemoreceptors (stimulated, inhibited, or no change) and the changes that cause these responses upon arrival to high altitude. Chemoreceptprtype andlpqation: Response: , _. Cause of the response: B. One'of the rescuers stays a few days with the remaining mountain climbers to help and becomes acclimatized to the high altitude. Which chemoreceptor will change its responses afler acclimatization?” ‘What is the mechanism of the acclimatization and howr will his filYOOJBI ventilation be affected? 2. (18 points); The graph shows curves calculated with the Henderson-Hasselbach equation for Paco; = 20', 30, 4-0, and 60 mm Hg. 40 35 30 25 "WM 20 15 1o ‘ ’ 6.80 7.00 2.20 7.40 7.50 7.80 8.00 l (i). Label the top of each curve with the corresponding PCO; value (all must be correct to get points). (ii) Draw a point and label it A, corresponding to the normal value of arterial blood. For the following, draw the path, with an arrow indicating direction, of the changes you expect: (iii) A type 1 diabetic that ran out of insulin, before compensation. Label it B. (iv) Physiological compensation of the above. Label it C. (v) A nervous UCSD student breathing fast and deeply during an exam. Label it D. (vi) Physiological compensation of the above. Label it E. (vii) __ overdose of narcotics that depressed the respiratory center, before compensation. Label it F. (viii) hysiological compensation of the above. Label it C. (ix) A previously normal person with severe vomiting for several hours. Label it H. . BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology [I Name: ANS 14/61? Fall, 2006, 2nd Midterm Exam. - UC ID #: Nevember [6, 2006 Page 2 3. (13 points). A. What part of the nephron is involved in regulation of the abnormalities in thelabove patients? B. Indicate which of the above patient(s) may develop hyperkalemia and the name and membrane location (luminal or basolateral) of the transporter responsible in the nephron _c_ells: C. Indicate which of the above patienfls) may develop hypokalemia and the name and membrane location (luminal or besolateralxof the trangporter responsible in the nephron cells: 4.I (4 points: What would Srou conclude from a lab report of the following arterial blood data? Paco; w 27 mm Hg, [HCO‘g] = 27 mM, pH = 7.24. Why? 5. ( 22 points). List or diagram the regulawa responses the} prevent the stomach pH from becoming too acidic (falling below 2.0). Include the cells that detect the low pH, their secretion, and the effect of this secretion on each of its target cells, including their respective secretions. BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 1] Name: AMS Mtg” g [<5 x . uc [D #: Fall, 2006, 2nd Midterm Exam. November l6, 2006 Page 3 6. (16 points). Motility in the Digestive System: Fill in the blanks. ’ is the main type of motilityin the esophagus. This type ofmotility causes a movement. .‘ _ _ _ _ motility is responsible for mixing of chyme in —1— w the stomach and small intestine, is responsible fo mixing in the colon. of A . ‘- are initiatedby I? '_ ' .7 f:__ I; _ _ . hicharea type of pacemaker cells that generate slow depolarizations, which have the highest frequency in the__=_,____“_,_,_,_u‘_‘ Ag and lowest frequency in the _ _ .l . Contraction occurs only when the depolarization reaches threshold, which generates action potentials caused by opening of mud channels. The strength of contraction increases when the frequency of i h - increases. Parssympathetic stimulation is - ‘ I I h—T whereas sympathetic stimulation is in the GI tract 1‘] are caused by secretion of every 90-120 min. during I , . periods. in the colon move the contents of large segments towards the rectum. '7. (25 points). Name three hormones that are secreted in response to the following stimuli in the duodenum, their target cells- and their effects. A. Carbohydrates. B. Acidic chyrne.( list 2 difi’erent effects of this hormone) C. Triglycerides, peptides, or aminoacids. ( list 3 different effects of this hormone) BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology l1 Name: y Fall, 2006, 2nd Midterm Exam. - UC ID #: November l6, 2006 Page 4 8. (10 points). A. What are the three absorbable carbohydrate products afier drinking milk and fruit juice? B. Digitalis drugs inhibit (Na,K)—ATPase. Explain briefly how these drugs will affect the absorption of each of the above carbohydrates. 9. (16 points). Chicken fat (“schmaltz”) consists of triglycerides and cholesterol. A. List the enzym, oofactors and absorbable products of “schmaltz” digestion, and the pathway(s) they use to cross the brush border, _ . _ p A . B. What side-effect would you expect to find in people that are treated with drugs that inhibit fat digestion and cholesterol absorption? C. How do the absorbed “schmaltz” products exit the intestinal cell and what is the pathway they follow _tfo enter the blood? 10. (6 phints). List two different mechanisms that can cause ascites (abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity). You need not state the disease, just the mechanisms. I I A I BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: W 3' Fail, 2006, 2nd Midterm Exam, 7 UC ID #1 W November 16, 2006 Page 5 l]. (12 points). Name three different reflexes between the stomach and intestines that regulate the motility of these organs. Include the type and site of the stimulus, the site and effect 0f each reflex, and their physiological function. ‘- Reflex: Stimulus: Effect: Function: 12‘ (9 points). For each of the following state whether they are orexigenie or appetite-inhibiting: NPY CCK. Leptin Ghrelin Insulin CART PYYna a-MSH Anandamide - FOP-e999?!” BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: Fall, 2005, 2nd Midterm Exam. , UC ID #: November 18, 2005 Page 1 l. (18 points) Match the following situations with the corresponding acid/base satus in column 1. Then, pick the expected main respiratory or renal compensation mechanism for the imbalance from column 2. Answers in both columns may be used more than once, or not at all. ACID/BASE IMBALANCE COMPENSATION A. Metabolic acidosis 1. Intercalated type A cells B. Respiratory acidosis 2. lntercalated type B cells C. Metabolic alkaiosis 3. Hyperventilation D. Respiratory alkalosis 4. Hypoventilation E. None (normal pH) 5. None (normal pH) F. Laboratory error Imbalance: Compensation: PaC02 2 30 mm Hg, P2102 = 105 mm Hg, [HCO3-} = 15 mM PaCO2 = 60 mm Hg, arterial pH : 7.52, [HCO3-] I 12 mM PaC02 = 20 mm Hg, Pa02 : 46 mm Hg, [HCO3-] = 18 mM A person with severe vomiting. A person with severe diarrhea. PaC02 = 60 mm Hg, P302 = 46 mm Hg, [HCO3-] = 20 mM A person with severe emphysema. __,,.___ .— A mountain climber near the top of Mount Everest. PaC02 = 60 mm Hg, Pa02 = 46 mm Hg, [Hco3_] = 36 mM 2, (12 points). A. List the two mechanisms by which H+ is secreted through the apical membrane of ‘he proximal tubule: l B. List the transporter by which HCO3‘ is reabsorbed across the basolateral membrane of the iroximal tubule (include the ions transported, their stoichiomeny, and the direction of transport); _._.5. C. Renal compensation 0A1.KALOSIS (circle the correct condition) can lead to iyperkalemia List the mechamsm that produces hyperkalemia: J I _. BIPN 102, Mammalian Physiology 11 Name: Fall, 2005, 2nd Midterm Exam. _ UC ID #: November 18, 2005 Page 2 3. (16 points). Complete the following table. List at least 2 actions of each hormone for full credit. Stimulus for Secretion pH < 7 in the duodenum Name of Hormone Secreted By A D cells in the stomach Fatty acids, peptides ' in the small intestine 4. (19 points}. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate responses in the table below: Digested What gets Mechanism of Mechanism of exit Arrives to liver nutrients: absorbed? entry into from intestinal cell? via: intestinal cell? Glycogen, Starches Triglycerides Proteins (assume complete digestiou) BEPN 102, Mammalian Physiology H Name: A W Fall, 2005, 2nd Midterm Exam, . UC ID #: November 18, 2005 age 3 5. (14 points), The intestinal brush border produces 3 digestive enzymes and one enzyme that activates a protease zymogen. List the names of these enzymes, their substrates, and their products. Enzyme: _ I substrate: product(s): ‘ _ I a.‘ b. V c. d. 6. (11 points) A. List four causes of gastrointestinal ulcers. Underline the most common cause. B. List three difierent tvnes of inhibitors of acid secretion. and their mechanism of action. 7. (10 points). A. Define “steatorrhea” and list two possible causes of this condition: B. What nutritional deficiencies may be found in people that have steatorrhea? 8. (8 points). What two nerve networks make up the enteric nervous system and where are they located? ' " ' ’ ' ‘ ‘ 9. (6 points). List one stimulatory and two inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors that regulate intestinal motility. ' ' ’ ' ' BIPN 102, Mammalian l’hysiology II Name: Fall, 2005, 2nd Midterm Exam. , UC ID #1 November 18, 2005 age 4 10. (10 points) List the ion that flows through the The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) channel, what regulates the Opening of the channel, and two different types of cells in the digestive system that have this channel, and the function of these cells. Ion: _ Channel is opened by: Cell 1:( " function: , ,. , , _ l —Iflfim+m Cell 2: function: . 1]. { 12 points). List three different reflexes between the stomach and intestines that regulate the motility of these organs, Include the type and site of the stimulus, the site and effect of each reflex, and their physiological function. Reflex: Stimulus: _ Effect: ' Function: ...
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BIPN102 M2 FA05 FA06 SP06 FA07 SP07 - ,- BIPN 102,...

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