2.methods-and-stats - Week 1: Spring 2009 Methods and...

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Methods and Statistics Week 1: Spring 2009
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2 Methods and Statistics Tools and some vocabulary Research methods Statistical tools Common terms
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Variables Properties of interest that can change values Independent variables: can (mostly) be changed, controlled or manipulated by the experimenter (age, treatment, study time, level of visual degradation, etc.) Dependent variables: what gets measured (answers on a survey, reaction time, percent correct, blood flow, etc.)
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4 Measurement Why are psychological variables so difficult to measure? Complexity: 500 million neurons and billions of synapses behavior, emotion, dreams? Variability: individual humans respond differently in similar situations Reactivity: people act (and feel, and think) differently when they know someone is watching
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5 Measurement DEFINE the property to be measured find a way to DETECT property to be measured length vs. intelligence
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6 Measurement RELIABILITY Measures have to be consistent and repeatable VALIDITY Measures need to accurately reflect what they are supposed to reflect
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7 Measurement
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8 Measurement
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9 Measurement
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10 Research Methods in Psychology Study one individual Study many individuals case study correlational studies experiments naturalistic observation surveys
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11 Case Studies
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12 Case Studies Observation or experimentation on a single entity (human, animal, social group, etc). Often used because it’s the only option (e.g., patients with rare form of brain damage) Limited potential for conclusions: Hank, a schizophrenic, has a domineering mother and a submissive father. Causal? Coincidental?
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13 Measurement It’s hard to draw conclusions based on a single subject/event Population: all possible persons/events that might be measured Sample: partial collection of persons/events that IS measured Law of large numbers- bigger is better
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14 Research Methods in Psychology Study one individual Study many individuals case study correlational studies experiments naturalistic observation surveys
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15 Reactivity and Bias
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16 Reactivity and Bias
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17 Naturalistic observation Also known as a field study (biologists) or “people-watching” (bored airport passengers) Useful in complex social situations- reduces demand characteristics Limited potential for conclusions, especially causation- we don’t know much about these people
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Surveys
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Surveys Look for relationships between variables by asking many people a series of questions.
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2012 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Leader during the Spring '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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2.methods-and-stats - Week 1: Spring 2009 Methods and...

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