Chapter_1_Logic_

Chapter_1_Logic_ - Arguing HowPhilosophersDoIt...

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Arguing How Philosophers Do It
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Click icon to add picture Philosophical  Arguments An  argument  consists of a  series of statements, called  premises , intended to  provide support for another  statement, call the  conclusion .   Philosophers give and  evaluate arguments for  philosophical conclusions.  
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Deductive Arguments Attempt to give strongest possible support for the conclusion— ideally, the premises logically guarantee it.   In a properly constructed deductive argument, if the premises are  true, the conclusion must be true as well.   Most frequently used type of argument in philosophy Studied by formal logic.  (Take PHIL 2010 for more!) Purports to offer reasons that establish its conclusion beyond  doubt.  
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Syllogism A very common type of  deductive argument.   Conclusion inferred from  two premises.   1. All human beings are  mortal.   2. Socrates is a human being.   3. Thus, Socrates is mortal.  
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Inductive Arguments Less ambitious than deductive arguments.   Premises are meant to provide strong support for the conclusion.  However, the support they provide does NOT establish the  conclusion beyond doubt.  
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Inductive Generalization An argument that moves  from a sample to a general  conclusion about a  population.   Most scientific arguments  are inductive  generalizations.   1. Swan #1 was white.   2. Swan #2 was white.   3. [And so on for all ten  thousand swans I have  seen.] 4. Therefore, (probably) all  swans are white.  
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Argument by Analogy An analogy is a comparison  between two or more things,  meant to be in some way  illuminating.   An argument in which, for  example, two or more things  are compared in order to  draw a conclusion about one  of them.   Practical decisions are often  made this way.   Comparison base and target  item.   1. The courses in Philosophy  of Science, Ethics, and  Philosophy of Religion are  all philosophy courses that  have been or will be taught  by Professor Smith.   2. The courses in Philosophy  of Science and Ethics were  entertaining.   3. Therefore, (probably) the  Philosophy of Religion  course will also be  entertaining.  
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Evaluating Arguments Let’s say that you’ve been presented with an argument and  determined whether it is deductive or inductive.  What now?   Now, you need to be able to evaluate it!   Deductive and inductive arguments are judged by different  standards.  
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Evaluating Deductive  Arguments Three questions you should ask of any deductive argument (ask them  in the order given):   1.
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