6.Chapter 11 and 12

6.Chapter 11 and 12 - Chapter 11 Mitosis Finish Do ch 12(ch...

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Chapter 11 – Mitosis Finish + Do ch 12., (ch 4, 14, 15, 16) 11.1 Mitosis and the Cell Cycle Chromosomes exists of single long stranded DNA double helix strands wrapped around proteins Prior to mitosis each chromosome is copied, then condenses First Gap -> DNA synthesis -> Second Gap -> Mitosis When new somatic cells form in eukaryotes, the amount of hereditary material in the original cll and the daughter cell remain constant. Mitosis forms daughter cells that are genetically identical to their parents. Cytokinesis: the division of cytoplasm into the two daughter cells. Interphase: non dividing phase 3 key events in multicellular eukaryotes: o Growth: the ancestry of the trillions of genetically identical cells can be traced by through a series of mitotic divisions to a single fertilized egg. The result of the union of sperm and an egg from your parents. o Wound repair o Reproduction: mitosis followed by cytokinesis The heredity material is duplicated with one copy going to each daughter cell during mitosis as a result, daughter cells contain genetic information identical to parents. 11.2 How does Mitosis take place? Histones: eukaryotic chromosomes normally exist as extremely long, threadlike, strands consisting of DNA associated with globular proteins, globular proteins Chromatin: DNA-protein material Chromatid: replicated chromosome Centromere: specialized region of the chromosome Sister chromatids represent exact copies of the same genetic information. Each chromatid contains one long DNA double helix. At the start of the M phase, then, each chromosome consist of 2 sister chromatids that are attached to one another at the centromere. Interphase: Each chromosome is composed of 2 sister chromotids Prophase The chromosomes have already replicated, formation of mitotic spindle, which produces mechanic forces that pull chromosomes into the daughter cells during mitosis. Prometaphase: nucleolus disappears and nucleur envelope fragments, Spindle fibres contact chromosomes at kinectochore, which are located at the centromere, each chromosome has 2 where spindle fibres attach Metaphase: Chromosomes complete migration to middle. Anaphase: Sister chromatids separate. Chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell. TeloPhase: The nucleur envelope re-forms and the spindle apparatus disintegrates. Cytokinesis: actinmysin ring causes the plasma membrane to begin pinching. Cytokinesis: Cell division begins:Actinmyosin ring causes the plasma membrane to begin pinching in. Cell divide and 2 daughter cells are formed. Chromosome: a Structure composed of a DNA molecule and associated proteins
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Chromotin: The Material that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes, consists of DNA molecule complexed with histone proteins Chromotid: one strand of replicated chromosome with its proteins Sister chromatids: 2 strands of replicated chromosome. When they seperare in mitosis
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6.Chapter 11 and 12 - Chapter 11 Mitosis Finish Do ch 12(ch...

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