Biology 112 - Learning Goals MT1

Biology 112 - Learning Goals MT1 - Biology 112 - Learning...

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Biology 112 - Learning Objectives Unit 1 - Structure and Function of Cells Topic 1 - Cells and Organisms • identify the major macromolecular molecular constituents of cells including proteins, DNA, RNA, carbohydrates, lipids and the monomers used to make these macromolecules. - DNA and RNA serve mainly as the informational molecules, cary info which specifies amino acid sequence - Proteins essentially do everything done by a cell: Sructural, Catalytic, Regulatory, Transport, Receptor,Force generating - Akino acids are the subunits for proteins - Nucleotides are the subunits for DNA RNA - Carbohydrates are the subunits for polysaccharides and lipids - Polysaccharides are made up of monoschrides which are sugars, glucose - Lipids are 3 fatty acids glycerol describe the typical size range for viruses, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. - Viruses are usually around 100nm - Prokaryotic cells are usually between 1 micrometer and 10 micrometer, can be up to 100 or as low as 100nm - Eukaryotic cells: 1mm- 1cm describe the characteristics that can be used to distinguish between prokaryotic and archaeal and eukaryotic cells. - Eukaryotic cells pocess a nucleus, bound organelles , many internal membranes - Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus , DNA is located in nucleoid, Bacteria cell walls contain unique molecule called muramic acid - Archea don’t have muramic acid • describe the difference between cells and organisms and the conditions where the two mean the same thing. - Cells make up organisms, single celled organisms like some bacteria. • contrast the differences in the internal membrane structures in the three cell types. - Eukaryotes have membrane bound internal structures, Prokaryotes do not, ie they don’t have mitochondria but do have ribosomes. Topic 2 - Cell Growth • describe what is meant by growth in a unicellular organism. - Population increase • calculate the approximate number of cells in a growing population based upon the initial number of cells. - identify the following phases on a growth curve graph: lag phase, exponential phase, stationary phase, death phase. - Lag Phase : Period of time after addition of cells to a culture during which the cell number does not increase. If cells that are added werer previously growing under same condition there may not be a lag phase. - Exponential phase : cells divide as quickly as they can while they use the energy/nutrient source in the medium, can only divide as fast as the nutrient is available.
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- Stationary phase : Cell number stops increasing. Cell divide and dying and this is balanced. Cells adapt to conditions of low nutrients and possible inhibitory metabolic products - Death phase : Division slows and Cell death increases, cells that are living adapt to conditions where they are living on material released by death of other cells, - Exponentail phase cells would die quick in a death phase population because they have not developed metabolic adjusments to survive the conditions
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Biology 112 - Learning Goals MT1 - Biology 112 - Learning...

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