Biology 112 - Learning Objectives
Unit 1 - Structure and Function of Cells
Topic 1 - Cells and Organisms
• identify the major macromolecular molecular constituents of cells including proteins, DNA,
RNA, carbohydrates, lipids and the monomers used to make these macromolecules.
DNA and RNA serve mainly as the informational molecules, cary info which specifies
amino acid sequence
Proteins essentially do everything done by a cell: Sructural, Catalytic, Regulatory,
Transport, Receptor,Force generating
Akino acids are the subunits for proteins
Nucleotides are the subunits for DNA RNA
Carbohydrates are the subunits for polysaccharides and lipids
Polysaccharides are made up of monoschrides which are sugars, glucose
Lipids are 3 fatty acids glycerol
describe the typical size range for viruses, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Viruses are usually around 100nm
Prokaryotic cells are usually between 1 micrometer and 10 micrometer, can be up to 100
or as low as 100nm
Eukaryotic cells: 1mm- 1cm
describe the characteristics that can be used to distinguish between prokaryotic and
archaeal and eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells pocess a nucleus, bound organelles , many internal membranes
Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus , DNA is located in nucleoid, Bacteria cell walls
contain unique molecule called muramic acid
Archea don’t have muramic acid
• describe the difference between cells and organisms and the conditions where the two
mean the same thing.
Cells make up organisms, single celled organisms like some bacteria.
• contrast the differences in the internal membrane structures in the three cell types.
Eukaryotes have membrane bound internal structures, Prokaryotes do not, ie they don’t
have mitochondria but do have ribosomes.
Topic 2 - Cell Growth
• describe what is meant by growth in a unicellular organism.
• calculate the approximate number of cells in a growing population based upon the initial
number of cells.
identify the following phases on a growth curve graph: lag phase, exponential phase,
stationary phase, death phase.
: Period of time after addition of cells to a culture during which the cell
number does not increase. If cells that are added werer previously growing under same
condition there may not be a lag phase.
: cells divide as quickly as they can while they use the energy/nutrient
source in the medium, can only divide as fast as the nutrient is available.