5.Chapter 53 Community Ecology

5.Chapter 53 Community Ecology - 53.1 Chapter 53 Community...

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Chapter 53 Community Ecology Read ch 50 A biological community consists of interacting species living within a defined area Ca moflauge, mimicry, behavioral technique aspects – ie school of fish 53.1 Fitness: the ability to survive and produce offspring -/- relationship = competition +/- relationship = consumption and paratism +/+ relationship = mutualism +/0 commencalism Coevolutionary: species that influence each other’s evolution and cause long term characteristic changes Interactions between species are dynamic they can change depending on the situation Competition When different individuals use the same limited resources Intraspecific : Competition that occurs between members of the same species. It intensifies as population density increases. Is a major cause of density dependant growth Interspecific competition: occurs when individuals from different species use the same limiting resources o Consumptive Compeition: Occurs when individuals consume the same resouces o Preemptive Competition: exists when one species makes space unavalible to other species o Overgrowth: Happens when one species grown above another o Chemical: Takes place when one species produces toxins that negatively affect another species o Territorial: arrises when a mobile species protects its feeding or breeding territory against other species o Encounter: Occurs when 2 species interfere directly for access to specific resources A Niche can be thought of as the range of resources that a species is able to use or the range of conditions it can tolerate Interspecific competition occurs when two niches overlap. Competitive exclusion principle: the hypothesis that it is not possible for species with the same niche to coexist Asymmetric competition: one species suffers a much greater fitness decline that the other species Symmetric competition: each of the interacting species experiences a roughly equal decrease in fitness. Fundamental Niche: the combination of resources or areas used or conditions tolerated in the absence of competiriors Realized niche: This is the portion of resources or areas used or conditions tolerated when competition occurs.
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