Bi121 Kelp, sea urchins, sea otter HANDOUT

Bi121 Kelp, sea urchins, sea otter HANDOUT - of leathery...

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Biol. 121 Michael Hawkes KELP, SEA URCHINS, AND SEA OTTERS: THE ROLE OF A KEYSTONE PREDATOR IN STRUCTURING KELP COMMUNITIES 1
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“The number of living creatures of all orders, whose existence intimately depends on the kelp, is wonderful. A great volume might be written, describing the inhabitants of one of these beds of seaweed.” Charles Darwin. 1839 “Like most biological communities, kelp forests contain a rich diversity of species, forms, and ecological interactions.” Peter Steinberg et al. 1995 “Kelps are major system components, often dominating lower shore levels when assessed by percent canopy cover or total biomass. Traditionally they have been aggregated into a single functional group
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Unformatted text preview: of leathery macrophytes and they appear to be the most productive group on all shores. Bob Paine. 2002 The sea otters predatory role in kelp forest ecosystems was discovered by contrasting inhabited and uninhabited areas and by observing changes over time as the uninhabited areas were recolonized and their founding populations grew. Jim Estes et al. 1998 2 Macrocystis pyrifera Giant Kelp Nereocystis luetkeana Alaria marginata Bull Kelp Laminaria setchellii Egregia menziesii Feather Boa Photos Michael W. Hawkes 3 Costaria costata Postels Saccharina sessilis 4 ia palmaeformis Dictyoneurum californicum...
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Bi121 Kelp, sea urchins, sea otter HANDOUT - of leathery...

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