eosc study guide m2

eosc study guide m2 - 1 Be wary of the main storm hazards...

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1. Be wary of the main storm hazards. Lightning, tornado, hail, downpours of rain, downpours of gust; hurricanes: contain thunderstorms, coastal erosion, storm surge, coastal flooding, and high waves. 2. Describe the different types of lightning, how they form, and what happens when they strike something. Cloud to cloud lightning: occur when the voltage gradient within a cloud or between clouds overcomes the electrical resistance of the air. Cloud to ground: Charge separation occurs, with positive and negative charges separate in the cloud. Charge separation occurs only in clouds are above the freezing level. Runaway discharge theory: electrons get sped up to near the speed of light, when they are this fast, resistance is decreased and they go faster, collide with atoms and get more electrons. Strikes can be negative or positive, positive less common and come from the anvil. Biggest risk in Ontario, distance away = seconds / 3. Stepped leader advances is not a single column, create a zig zag shape, when it approaches the ground, spark from ground connects with it, and a pathway of strokes, or return strokes flow down. Then another leader comes down called a dart leader. Types of lightning: ball lightning, St. Elmo’s fire: tall objects glow as they emit sparks, makes air blue. Sprites: electrical burts that rise from cloud tops. Blue jets: upward moving electrical ejections from the tops of thunderstorms. 3. Recognize thunderstorms, be able to identify Tstorm components, and and explain how they evolve. Components: anvil, top of tstorm, can be 100km in diameter, can have overshooting dome if very strong updrafts, main updraft: 15 km diameter, flanking line following behind, striations: (spinning). Underneath: funnel cloud or tornado, rain in front of cloud. Large cells that evolve 15-30 mins, usually more than one cell, multicell storms. 3 stages, cumulus, mature, and dissipative. Cumulus: unstable air raises, brings water vapour from surface to troposphere, it becomes humid enough that clouds begin undergoing vertical growth at 5 – 20m/s, the temp decreases cloud extends above freezing level. Mature: precipitation begins to fall, downdrafts form where precipitation is highest, most powerful part of storm, updrafts dominate interior of cloud, downdrafts are outside. Dissipative stage: downdrafts occupy more of the base, and supply of water vapor is cut off, precipitation diminishes and water evaporates . 4. Explain how storms get their energy from the sun. Sun releases energy into atmosphere, some is absorbed into the ground, some is reflected into space, some into clouds, some released as latent and sensible heat. Latent heat increases humidity, sensible heat increases temperature, storms need both to be created. Highest time of thunderstorm likelihood is late afternoon early evening. 5.
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eosc study guide m2 - 1 Be wary of the main storm hazards...

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