Polarimetry

Basically the hand represents a chiral object ie the

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Unformatted text preview: e turned. Basically, the hand represents a chiral object, i.e., the hand has no element of symmetry. MIRROR A B C A dart board, on the other hand, does have symmetry elements. Following the same procedure as for the hands, the dart board on the right (2) in D is the mirror image of the dart board on the left (1). If the dart board on the right is brought out of the mirror and superpositioned on the dart board on the left, all elements of the dart board on the right will line up with those on the left (E and F). The dart board is symmetrical, and therefore is an achiral object. MIRROR 1 2 2 1 D 1 2 E F Organic molecules can exhibit similar properties. First, consider 2-chlorobutane, and remember that organic molecules are three-dimensional entities. In 2-chlorobutane, the second carbon atom of the chain has four different groups bonded to it, a hydrogen atom, a methyl group, a chlorine atom, and an ethyl group. A carbon atom with four different groups bonded to it is considered to be a chiral atom, and, if only one such atom is present in a molecule, this atom will impart chirality to the molecule. That is, the structure of 2-chlorobutane (S) on the left in G is the mirror image of the structure of 2-chlorobutane (R) on the right in G, and the two mirror images of the same compound are not superposable on one another (See H and I). These...
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