Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 8.1 An organisms metabolism...

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Chapter 8 8.1 – An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics - The totality of an organism’s chemical reactions is called metabolism . Metabolism is an emergent property of life that arises from orderly interactions between molecules. - A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product. - Catabolic pathways – breakdown pathways. Some metabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds. Ex) cellular respiration - Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones; they are sometimes called biosynthetic pathways. - Bioenergetics – the study of how energy flows through living organisms - Energy is the capacity to cause change. - Kinetic energy – the relative motion of objects. - Heat, or thermal energy , is kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules. - Potential energy – energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure. - Chemical energy – the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction. - The study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter is called thermodynamics. - An isolated system , such as that approximated by liquid in a thermos bottle, is unable to exchange either energy or matter with its surroundings. - In an open system , energy and matter can be transferred between the system and its surroundings. (Organisms) - First law of thermodynamics ( Principle of conservation of energy ) – Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed. - Entropy – a measure of disorder, or randomness. The more randomly arranged a collection of matter is, the greater its entropy. - Second law of thermodynamics – Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. - Spontaneous process – a process that can occur without an input of energy. exergonic - For a process to occur spontaneously, it must increase the entropy of the universe. - Energy flows into most ecosystems in the form of light and exits in the form of heat.
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2012 for the course ECON 200 Bones taught by Professor Dr.elwonger during the Winter '12 term at Ohio State.

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Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 8.1 An organisms metabolism...

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