STUDY - STUDY CHAPTER 1 ORGANIZATION WHAT IS LIFE 7 Attributes of Life 1 Order and Organization(Cell Theory 2 Energy Processing i.e metabolism(at

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STUDY CHAPTER 1 – ORGANIZATION, WHAT IS LIFE? 7 Attributes of Life: 1. Order and Organization (Cell Theory) 2. Energy Processing; i.e., metabolism (at least sometimes; but think about spores, seeds, hibernation, and diapause) 3. Response to the environment (Sensitivity) 4. Regulation (e.g. Feedback Inhibition, Positive feedback) 5. Growth and development 6. Reproduction 7. Evolution (can mutate = population response) - Life is not restricted to forms that are actively metabolizing. Dormant Forms: - Bacterial Spore - Zero metabolism - Remain “viable” for 1000’s of years - Dormant seeds - Need germinants - Diapause - Many plants and animals arrest metabolism temporarily - Something is dormant when it has a low metabolic rate and a suspension of growth and development. - Living forms don’t have to be independent (autonomous). Think parasite (Bdellovibrio). - A virus is not considered to be alive by some scientists because it is not a cell. Chemical Requirements of Life: 1. Carbon-based 2. Also Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus ( Arsenic can replace Phosphorous). Also trace elements: Mn, Mg, Na, K, Cl, Fe, etc. 3. Nucleic Acids. DNA is found in all cellular life forms. RNA is probably the first genetic material and is found in some viruses. 4. All life forms must have metabolic pathways. Laws of Thermodynamics: 1. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change forms. 2. Energy goes from ordered to disordered (entropy never decreases) in a closed system. Laws of Biology: 1. The Biosphere is not a closed system 2. Living forms are composed of chemicals, nothing else: C, O, N, H, S, P, + trace elements forming Nucleic Acids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids. 3. These functions give rise to “emergent properties” as they are organized into more complex systems: Metabolism, Regulation, Growth, Development, and Reproduction 4. Living forms go from lower order to higher order; i.e., become organized (so, they “disobey” the 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics)
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5. Living organisms draw energy from the Sun and from one another; thus in a larger sense (closed system of the Universe) they must obey the 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics. 6. Living organisms evolve through mutation and selection. - Order and Organization would be used to tell that a fossil was once alive. - An Ecosystem is composed of living and non-living components of life. - In systems biology , scienists attempt to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system’s parts. - System Biology is best described by protein-protein interaction in a cell. Levels of Biological Organization (largest to smallest): 1. The Biosphere 2. Ecosystems 3. Communities 4. Populations 5. Organisms 6. Organs and Organ Systems 7. Tissues 8. Cells 9. Organelles 10. Molecules. 3 Domains of Life:
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2012 for the course ECON 200 Bones taught by Professor Dr.elwonger during the Winter '12 term at Ohio State.

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STUDY - STUDY CHAPTER 1 ORGANIZATION WHAT IS LIFE 7 Attributes of Life 1 Order and Organization(Cell Theory 2 Energy Processing i.e metabolism(at

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