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Unformatted text preview: http://vaw.sagepub.com/ Violence Against Women http://vaw.sagepub.com/content/12/11/1003 The online version of this article can be found at: DOI: 10.1177/1077801206293328 2006 12: 1003 Violence Against Women Michael P. Johnson Violence Conflict and Control : Gender Symmetry and Asymmetry in Domestic Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com can be found at: Violence Against Women Additional services and information for http://vaw.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Email Alerts: http://vaw.sagepub.com/subscriptions Subscriptions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Permissions: http://vaw.sagepub.com/content/12/11/1003.refs.html Citations: What is This?- Oct 16, 2006 Version of Record >> at BAYLOR LIBRARY on January 8, 2012 vaw.sagepub.com Downloaded from 1003 Violence Against Women Volume 12 Number 11 November 2006 1003-1018 © 2006 Sage Publications 10.1177/1077801206293328 http://vaw.sagepub.com hosted at http://online.sagepub.com Conflict and Control Gender Symmetry and Asymmetry in Domestic Violence Michael P. Johnson The Pennsylvania State University, University Park Four types of individual partner violence are identified based on the dyadic control context of the violence. In intimate terrorism, the individual is violent and controlling, the partner is not. In violent resistance, the individual is violent but not controlling; the partner is the violent and controlling one. In situational couple violence, although the individual is violent, neither the individual nor the partner is violent and controlling. In mutual violent control, the individual and the partner are violent and controlling. Evidence is presented that situational couple violence dominates in general surveys, intimate terrorism and violent resistance dominate in agency samples, and this is the source of differences across studies with respect to the gender symmetry of partner vio- lence. An argument is made that if we want to understand partner violence, intervene effectively in individual cases, or make useful policy recommendations, we must make these distinctions in our research. Keywords: gender symmetry; intimate terrorism; mutual violent control; situational couple violence; violent resistance T he central argument of this article is that there are four major types of intimate partner violence and that the failure to distinguish among them has left us with a domestic violence literature that, to a large extent, may be uninterpretable. The types of domestic violence (situational couple violence, intimate terrorism, violent resistance, and mutual violent control) are defined conceptually in terms of the con- trol motives of the violent member(s) of the couple, motives that are identified oper- ationally by patterns of controlling behavior that indicate an attempt to exercise general control over one’s partner. With respect to implications for the question of gender symmetry, these types of domestic violence differ dramatically. In hetero-gender symmetry, these types of domestic violence differ dramatically....
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