9_networking - Part 9 Internet and Socket Programming CS252...

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Part 9: Internet and Socket Programming CS252: Systems Programming Ramana Kompella Computer Science Department Purdue University
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History of the Internet In the late 1960s the Department of Defense Advance Research Project Agency (ARPA) created a nationwide network to allow computer access to the different research centers. The alternative was to give a computer to each center/university but this was –very- expensive. Research in the Internet continued in the 70s and 80s The Internet became a commercial success in the 90s.
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History of the Internet The Internet has been doubling in size every nine to twelve months. Some people attribute the increase in productivity in the last 10 years to the existence of the Internet. People produce more in less time.
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Internet Architecture The Internet is a collection of Øඏ Networks Øඏ Routers interconnecting networks Øඏ Hosts connected to networks. H Network H H R Network H H R Network H Network H H H H H
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Internet Architecture The networks may be implemented using different kinds of hardware: Ethernet, Token Ring, Serial Line, Apple Talk, etc. The goal of the Internet is to hide all this heterogeneity to the user and user programs.
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Internet Architecture The internet is a virtual network with its own addressing and name scheme. H Network H H R Network H H R Network H Network H H H H H Internet
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Internet Layering It reflects the layering used by the TCP/IP protocols Closer to reality than ISO- 7 Layering Application Transport Internet Network Interface Physical - Individual Application Programs (HTTP) - Program to Program (TCP and UDP) - Packet Forwarding. Machine to Machine. (IP) - Local Area Network (Ethernet, RS232, etc) - Basic Network Hardware
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IP Addressing It is an abstraction to hide the network internals. It is independent from hardware addressing. IP addresses are used for all communications. IP addresses use 32 bits. There is a unique value for each host
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IP Addressing Important: An IP Address does not specify a specific computer. Instead, each IP address identifies a connection between a computer and a network. An IP address identifies a network interface. A computer with multiple network connections (like a router) must be assigned one IP address for each connection.
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IP Addressing It has two parts: Øඏ The prefix identifies a network Øඏ The suffix identifies the host in that network. Network Number Host Number H N1 H H H N1 H1 N1 H2 N1 H3 N1 H4 R N2 H H N2 H1 N2 H2 N2 H3 N1 H5
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IP Addressing A global authority assigns a unique prefix for the network. A local administrator assigns a unique prefix to the hosts. The number of bits assigned to the prefix and suffix is variable depending on the size of the number of hosts in each network.
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Routing The routing table gives the next router necessary to reach the destination network.
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