4._MINERALS_white - MINERALS

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MINERALS A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid, which is physically and chemically distinctive. Malachite http://www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com/
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MINERALS Consistent and recognizable physical and chemical properties Halite (Table Salt) http://www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com/
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CHEMISTRY REVIEW An element is a substance that can not be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical reactions
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CHEMISTRY REVIEW An atom is the smallest unit of a substance that retains the properties of that element Composed of 3 types of subatomic particles Protons (positively charged) Oxygen
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CHEMISTRY REVIEW A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound that retains the properties of that substance Can have more than 1 element H2O Water
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Atomic Structure Protons and neutrons form the nucleus of an atom Represents tiny fraction of the volume at the center of an atom, but nearly all of the mass
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Atomic Structure Electrons orbit the nucleus in discrete shells or energy levels Shells represent nearly all of the volume of an atom, but only a tiny fraction of the mass Neutral Atom : Numbers of electrons (-) and protons (+) are equal Ordinary chemical reactions involve only outermost shell (valence) electrons
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Chemical Bonding Chemical bonding is controlled by outermost shell (valence) electrons Elements will typically be reactive unless their valence shell is full
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Chemical Bonding Ions - Atoms or groups of atoms with unequal numbers of protons and electrons , thus having a non-zero charge
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Chemical Bonding Positive and negative ions are attracted to one another and may stick or chemically bond together 1. Ionic bonding 2. Covalent bonding 3. Metallic bonding
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Chemical Bonding Ionic bonding Involves transfer of valence electrons from one atom to another Ionic bonding of NaCl (sodium chloride) (Halite or Table Salt) Na and Cl ions are held together by their electrical attraction to each http://www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com/
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4._MINERALS_white - MINERALS

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