Unformatted text preview: mRNA codon.
! for a transmembrane gradient of any solute X, the Gibbs free energy of the gradient is found by:
ÄGX = RT ln([X]in/[X]out) + zFVm = 5.7 kJ/mol log([X]in/[X]out) + zFVm
“in” = cytoplasmic; “out” = extracellular or non-cytoplasmic space; z = valence of the ion;
F = Faraday constant = 102 kJ/Vmol = 0.1 kJ/mVmol
! the equilibrium potential for an ion, X: VX = (59mV/z) log([X]out/[X]in)
! for a gradient of a charged molecule, X: ÄGX = zF(Vm VX)
! for a proton gradient: ÄG = F(Äp), where the protonmotive force, Äp = ø (59mV ÄpH)
and where ø = Vm of inner mitochondrial membrane, and ÄpH = (pHIMS pHmatrix)
! IMM/OMM = inner/outer mitochondrial membrane; IMS = intermembrane space
! On this date in 1812, French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte began a retreat from Moscow.
Having already lost 75% of his troops to combat and sub-zero weather during the invasion,
Napoleon ended this retreat with <5% of his original force of 400,000 men alive. -1- NAME: __________KEY________________
MIDTERM EXAM II
19 October 2009
________________________________________________________________________________ T HE G E NE T I C C ODE
(S in g le letter a b b rev ia tio n s for a m in o...
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