2009 Exam 2

for a transmembrane gradient of any solute x the

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Unformatted text preview: mRNA codon. ! for a transmembrane gradient of any solute X, the Gibbs free energy of the gradient is found by: ÄGX = RT ln([X]in/[X]out) + zFVm = 5.7 kJ/mol ￿ log([X]in/[X]out) + zFVm “in” = cytoplasmic; “out” = extracellular or non-cytoplasmic space; z = valence of the ion; F = Faraday constant = 102 kJ/V￿mol = 0.1 kJ/mV￿mol ! the equilibrium potential for an ion, X: VX = (59mV/z) ￿ log([X]out/[X]in) ! for a gradient of a charged molecule, X: ÄGX = zF(Vm ￿ VX) ! for a proton gradient: ÄG = F(Äp), where the protonmotive force, Äp = ø ￿ (59mV ￿ ÄpH) and where ø = Vm of inner mitochondrial membrane, and ÄpH = (pHIMS ￿ pHmatrix) ! IMM/OMM = inner/outer mitochondrial membrane; IMS = intermembrane space ! On this date in 1812, French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte began a retreat from Moscow. Having already lost 75% of his troops to combat and sub-zero weather during the invasion, Napoleon ended this retreat with <5% of his original force of 400,000 men alive. -1- NAME: __________KEY________________ MIDTERM EXAM II BIOLOGY 231 19 October 2009 ________________________________________________________________________________ T HE G E NE T I C C ODE (S in g le letter a b b rev ia tio n s for a m in o...
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2012 for the course BIO 231 taught by Professor Hollenbeck during the Fall '11 term at Purdue.

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