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Lecture 28 - Bio 121 Lecture 28 social behavior A Why form...

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Bio 121 Lecture 28 – social behavior A. Why form groups? – set of conspecifics that remain together and interact a. Join if joining the group benefits the individual (benefits are greater than costs for individual) b. Costs b.i. Automatic costs b.i.1. Increased competition for food and mates and everything else b.i.2. Increased risk of infection b.ii. Possible costs b.ii.1. Risk of exploitation of parental care b.ii.1.a. Exp: elephant seals b.ii.1.a.i. Larger males have increased reproductive success b.ii.1.a.ii. Females have about 1 calf per year b.ii.1.a.iii. Some males will drink milk from multiple mothers to get bigger b.ii.2. Conspecifics will kill your kids b.ii.2.a. Exp: black headed gulls c. Benefits c.i. Predator defense c.ii. Improved foraging efficiency c.iii. Improved defense of resource c.iv. Improved care of young B. Groups as anti-predator mechanisms (if groups are for anti-predator purpose, then groups will form in proportion to intensity of predation. a. Passive defense – advantage to having someone between you and predator a.i. Might predict uniformity in size, color, and in behavior a.ii. Examples a.ii.1. School of fish a.ii.2. Herds of mammals b. Improved predator detection – more eyes and noses observing predators b.i. Increased vigilance b.ii.
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