lec7b - A final decision for the winemaker Wine packaging...

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1 Wine Closures and Packaging FS4300 FDSC 4300 Closures Gavin Sacks A final decision for the winemaker: Wine packaging Fermentation Grapes FDSC 4300 Closures Finished wine Cellar Operations Wine Consumers Packaging a) Oxygen transmission b) Winery operational costs (up-front investment, per- unit cost, ease of operation) Packaging Considerations FDSC 4300 Closures c) Off-flavor release from packaging d) “Flavor scalping” – absorption of wine volatiles e) Consumer Perception (Aesthetically Pleasing, Easy to Open, Perceived Value) a) Glass bottle with closure Natural cork Technical and agglomerated corks Plastic “synthetic” cork Packaging Types FDSC 4300 Closures Screwcap Crowns (i.e. beer bottle type closures) New players: Vino-Seal™, Zork™ b) “Alternative Packaging” Bag-in-box, Tetra-Pak™ Plastic bottles Aluminum cans The most popular packaging: Glass Bottles FDSC 4300 Closures Glass Bottles Review of earlier lectures by Terry FDSC 4300 Closures Roman times (mostly decorative) 17 th and 18 th C (more functional) Glass is highly inert, inexpensive to manufacture
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2 Problem with glass: how to seal, exclude oxygen Early strategies FDSC 4300 Closures Wax, olive oil, leather, cloth, pitch To make a seal: compress something soft and elastic against something hard FDSC 4300 Closures Refrigerator and car doors: a compressible polymeric gasket Wine bottle: usually, a compressible cork Idea : the elasticity of the gasket / o-ring / washer / cork / etc. . will cause it to expand to fill any gaps Natural cork closures ~50% of worldwide cork production from Portugal Water and gas impermeable FDSC 4300 Closures Highly compressible/elastic: will expand to fill small glass imperfections A natural product, with inherent natural variability in quality Physical defects Chemical defects Cork bark: large, loose cells (lenticels) Cell size: ~25 micron diameter Composition: Air: (Up to 90% by volume!) Lignin: Structural stability, air tight Suberin and other waxes: waterproo FDSC 4300 Closures Cork: original substrate for discovery of cells (Robert Hooke, 1665) Suberin and other waxes: waterproof Cellulose, hemicellulose Advantages: Water impermeable, gas impermeable Highly compressible/elastic: will expand to fill small glass imperfections Relatively inert Cork Bark to Corks Planks are air dried Planks are boiled Sterilization, improve pliability www.wine-pages.com FDSC 4300 Closures Punching of corks Sorting (“grading”) of corks More sterilization www.wineanorak.com Grading of corks Higher grade Lower grade FDSC 4300 Closures Exposed and large lenticels = Lower grade = worse seal
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3 Natural cork closures ADVANTAGES: Multi century track record Consumer acceptability Best corks provide excellent seals Sustainable agriculture based produc FDSC 4300 Closures Sustainable agriculture-based product DISADVANTAGES: Natural Product = variability • Cork-to-cork variation in sealing capability • Cork-to-cork variation in off-aromas Price per unit, especially when quality is paramount “Cork Taint” – cork industry bane Primary compound implicated:
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2012 for the course FDSC 4300 taught by Professor Sachs during the Spring '12 term at Cornell.

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lec7b - A final decision for the winemaker Wine packaging...

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